PROJECT: The Future of Jalan Malioboro

The following is a recount and documentation of the process that Adeel, Serena, Stella and Aisling, underwent to produce a response to their Design Project, Group C: Jalan Malioboro (Malioboro Street) and surrounding areas. 

Our group began their design project by coming together and discussing the research that we had gathered prior to the trip as well as the many ideas that we had been brainstorming. We posted a response to questions asked by our teachers on the 3rdof December 2019, into our private slack group, Group Pala:

“As a group we held many assumptions about the prevalence of smoking; we were surprised to see that there weren’t as many people smoking as often as we had assumed. Some of us were also expecting to see children smoking due to the exposure of media before the studio.

The tobacco advertisements were more impactful and shocking despite reading about them beforehand and we were especially surprised to see how many there were and how targeted they were.

We think some of the biggest challenges that we may face designing in this context are going to be cultural and language barriers. Socially speaking as well, we think deconstructing or challenging the entrenched gender roles and cultural significance of smoking will be very challenging. Besides the strong ties between masculinity and smoking, we believe the national patriotism tied to the tobacco industry in the general public will also be difficult to overcome. We are hoping to combat this through research and first-hand cultural immersion.”

Next we continued to do our own further research, both first hand and online, looking to gather as much information as possible before the commencement of our brief. 

A few days later, we had another meeting with our teachers where we discussed the three rules in which we would follow as a group, working together over the next week:

“Everyone should be heard and open to ideas but uniform in decision making. Keep up with deadlines and group goals. Have a place for everyone to shine.”

Following on from this, we were later given our official brief:

“*LOCATION C: Jalan Malioboro (Malioboro street) and surrounding areas* (Smoke free Yogya campaign, working with public spaces in Yogyakarta which fall under the Provincial government, not the city government. This links to the first focus of the public health campaign we discussed at Puskesmas Berbah. You might like to look into advertising contracts, visit Kali Code, or think about different ways of mapping the area.)”

We then continued our research, brain stormed ideas to present to the teachers in our next meeting, visited Malioboro and took observational notes and decided on our style of approach, through the lens of a comic book. 

After our first official meeting with our teachers at our hotel, we had a clear vision of where we were heading. We had our comic book idea approved and decided that our next steps would involve some more first-hand research as well as researching visual comic book styles. 

Here is a written recount of what the we did, following our first meeting: 

“Yesterday we had a busy day which primarily consisted of first hand research:

We looked at visual styles for comics by conducting our own research as well as visiting Achong. He showed us many of the comics that he has and talked to us about Riso printing. Through looking at different visual styles, we decided that we’d like to incorporate both hand drawn and photographic media into our comic. Here are some examples:

The photographic media will showcase textures from both Kali Code and Malioboro to reflect the histories of the locations in our future scenario, juxtaposing the old against the new to show how far Malioboro has come since its past in “2019”.
Next we walked around the streets, observing and photographing street art, looking at the various forms of self expression in the area. 

We then went on a 4 hour walking tour of Kali Code where we immersed ourselves in the rich history of the area by talking to locals as well as meeting the hard working families who specialise in different crafts, many of which end up at the markets in Malioboro. We told our tour guide that we were looking into the Tobbacco industry in Indonesia and he gave us some wonderful insights as he used to work in The House of Sampoerna, a Tobacco Museum, in Surabaya, East Java. We had many questions for the locals regarding cigarette advertisement in the area, which our tour guide was able to translate for us. for example, an elderly couple had cigarette advertisement banners hanging up in the front of their house which we were told they were given for free from the convenience store “to block the sun coming into their home”, because they have lots of them just lying around. 

Our tour guide, Bayu, in Kali Code – Photograph taken by Group Pala

We also spoke to a lady on the street who sold cigarettes in her store. She had giant banners to promote cigarettes at the front of her store and we asked her if she got paid to have them there, she said “no”, but that it lets people know that there are cigarettes there and helps her with business. At the end of the tour, we conducted a formal interview with the tour guide as a subject, his name is Bayu Topan. We found him interesting because he does not smoke but always felt a great deal of pressure to do so and he used to struggle because people would say ‘he is not a man’ if he does not smoke. Many male members of his family also gave up smoking cigarettes in their later life due to poor health. 

Then after the tour, some of us went to Malioboro to observe our surroundings as well as to enjoy the car free day/night and festival. It was a very different atmosphere this time around and we recorded key sensory observations such as colours, noise, smell, weather and the actions of people around us. We also used mixed tools to record our surroundings such as photography, videography, writing and sound mapping. 
Then our last task of the night was to watch Into the Spiderverse, a comic book style movie about Spider-Man which uses various visual symbols and styles to link the movie to its comic book background.



And then we reconvened and brought together our many ideas for our future scenario and decided and what we wanted to do. We also drew up some sketches of what we want our comic to look like.”

Over the next few days, we continued to work together as a group, meeting up each day with the teachers and continuing our research as well as the development of our project and visuals for our comic through both photography and drawing.

Here are further written recounts from what we were able to achieve over those few days:

“Yesterday we contacted Bayu and got his permission to use him as a main character in our comic, as well as permission to keep his name the same.

Then, we gathered as a group and put together a storyboard while working on creating different scenes visually and decided how we would go about it. While the illustrators were working on their drawings, I put together scripts, titles for the comic and conducted further research. We have decided that we will only have two pages with a comic illustration, printed in Riso, the cover and the first page. The remainder of the comic will be presented as a scroll comic while we communicate the information for our scenario to the audience. This is more achievable for us. 

We also re-visited Malioboro but this time during the day to gain a new perspective. We took note of sensory observations as well as using photography to document the streets. We later used the photos to help aid our research and drawings of the Malioboro area.

Next we went and chose paper stock that we would like to use for our Riso printing. After successfully choosing a size, colour and texture, we went to another shop and got all the pages cut to size. 

In the afternoon, we went and visited Anagard’s home in Bantul. Anagard is a famous street artist in Indonesia who has his own studio and produces work throughout the town of Bantul as well as abroad. Anagard is currently in Cambodia doing work for people so he could not be at his home but he thanked us for coming to visit and had his student give us a tour of the work in the local village that Anagard and other artists have contributed to. We found the work of the artists interesting because the street art in the village is being used to convey important messages and themes such as recognising the work of farmers and how vital they are to the country, control of the citizens, particularly children, through media as well as looking into health issues such as excess sugar consumption. It was also interesting to see the variety of visual styles used. 

We continued to work on the visuals for the comics and developed our scenario for the year 2040 which the teachers had approved.

We also had a look at the comic book section and children’s book section at Milas Vegetarian Resto.”

Finally, our project was close to being complete and we were beginning to tie up any loose ends that we still had to finish, including printing our Riso work and rehearsing our script for the scenario presentation.

We decided on riso printing as it would be most effective in displaying our dystopian view. The three colours used to print were red, black and blue. This way, we were able to use the red to draw attention to the abundance of cigarette advertising, contrasted against the blue of the streets and buildings. The smoke was printed in black to also show the toxicity of the environment. Also, though each were individually illustrated with different styles, the limitation of colours ensured visual cohesion. 

We printed three poster designs for the presentation: the first was the cover of the comic, in which Bayu, the protagonist and hero is given the spotlight. The other poster was a dystopian view of Maliaboro St, in which dark clouds of smoke overwhelm the environment, cigarette butts are littered everywhere and Marlboro advertising has taken over the street. The last poster is a scene from the comic that showcases the only smoke-free zone, the Marlboro Mall.

Here is a copy of the speech that we gave in our presentation:

“Before we start, we would just like to say hello and thank you to a special guest in the audience, Bayu. Without whom, we would not have been able to learn all we have about our area of research. He has also been our inspiration for our hero character in our comic book!

The date is May 31st2040, World no Tobacco Day, and Indonesia has still not signed the WHO FCTC. This comes despite the efforts of many organizations to direct Indonesia towards a ‘smoke-free’ future. Indonesia’s failure to implement harsher anti-smoking laws has led to the demise of specific ‘smoke-free’ areas across the city and has seen an increase in active smokers of all ages, specifically boys between the ages of 12 to 15 years old. 

The city streets and village landscapes are littered with red, black and white banners, more so than ever, often sporting the age-old slogan “Pro Never Quit”. Like propaganda, cigarette advertisement drape across the surroundings, poisoning the minds of the people. Where once there stood ‘smoke free areas’ in restaurants, hospitals, schools and more, people gather to smoke like never before. The saddest of all is Jalan Malboro, formerly known as Jalan Malioboro. Celebrating the street’s love of cigarettes, despite it once being a ‘smoke free zone’, the area was officially renamed to ‘Marlboro’. Its vibrancy, culture and bustling nature has been swept away like the fresh air that once was, and standing in its place is the stench of burning tobacco as it sweeps through the streets, like a dark grey cloud, choking us all.

Everywhere you look, children are made to wear face masks, their little eyes peeping out from the cloth that protects their lungs trying not to breathe in the harsh chemicals that reside in the air. What once was a city loved, is now an area where people only gather to smoke, a soulless void that sucks your life away. Moving swiftly off the streets, the plaza is the only escape for people wanting to get away from the smoke. 

The most popular items sold in Marlboro are face masks and cigarettes, an unlikely combination that has cemented its way into the streets among the discarded cigarette butts that litter the ground like leaves after a heavy storm. Whispers among locals say that the ghosts of the past that once had Marlboro dancing and singing into the night, now haunt the hollow lanes, desolate and black. Street vending carts lie dormant like wounded skeletons, tossed to the side, but no one bats an eye. 

This is the Malioboro that you once loved. Is this the future that you want for it?

This is how we envision the future to be if nothing changes. As a group, we have brought to life, a series of visuals in the form of a comic in the hopes that we may prevent such things from happening. By seeing the dim prospects of what lies in store, our comic aims to scare people into action. 

Through extensive research, we have been able to create a realistic landscape of what the future may hold. Let’s talk about how tobacco continued to take over despite the solutions that Indonesia has tried to put in place, particularly amongst the younger generations. Back in 2018, the National Health Research Data (Riskesdas) noted that “the prevalence of smoking teenagers aged 10-18 years old rose from 7.2% in 2013, to 9.1% in 2018. This shows a clear increase of new smokers over the time period in which new policies have been implemented. According to Andrew Rosser from the School of Social Sciences at the University of Adelaide, the inconsistency of the government in locking down a stricter tobacco-control policy regime has had a negative impact on the country’s worsening tobacco epidemic. Thus, tobacco control in Indonesia will likely not move forward until the government strengthens existing laws, makes new improved laws or “develops protocols for enforcing all laws”.

Rosser also notes, that advertising is also a key player in the worsening of the tobacco crisis in Indonesia with statistics showing that over 90% of young students in one month during 2015 had actively noticed advertisements on billboards for cigarettes, magazines and newspapers. 

In an article ‘Linking global youth tobacco survey data to the WHO framework convention on tobacco control: The case for Indonesia’, inconsistencies within the tax administration on cigarettes has allowed for loopholes to form between point of sale and consumers. “Tired tax rates by production scale allows firms to evade paying the highest tax brackets legally, thereby increasing profit margins while reducing the prices at point of sale”. According to a 2009 article on tobacco control for health by Sarah Barber and Abdillah Ahsan, Indonesia has been implementing tobacco regulations since 1999, but the reality of tobacco use goes in the opposite direction according to the survey data report. Other contributing factors that have shaped our future scenario include a lax control over tobacco in Indonesia, the social normality of smoking, the powerful lobby of the tobacco industry against tobacco control and the continued profit maximization behaviour and sustainability of the tobacco industry. 

The possible impacts of thinking about this scenario now include early prevention where we can see the extremes that Indonesia is heading towards if harsher control of tobacco is not implemented. With this, early strategies can be put into place, spurring the people of Jogja into action. It allows time for a campaign to arise brought about by the shock factor created from this scenario. After becoming aware of what the future may hold, we can work together to avoid such an outcome. 

What can be implemented now is the spreading of awareness of what the future may look like if nothing is done. We would like this comic to be in print form and readily available to anyone who wishes to read it, by making it affordable to people of all ages with no restrictions. We want people to look at the tobacco industry from a new perspective. Our comic is thought provoking and can spur changes such as the removal of advertising from Malioboro street, the implementation of smoke free zones that are monitored and adhered to, as well as signage to remind people that no smoking is permitted. Through our comic, we believe community action can form with added pressure from the public to see changes that will improve the future prospects of the area.  

Our scenario can help our stakeholders imagine different ways of doing things. It can help them to investigate new ways of approaching the topic. In our case, through a medium that is quite popular, especially among young audiences in which we could have the biggest impact, therefore preventing children and teenagers from taking up smoking. It also has an element of fun and thought provocation through the act of reading a comic, something which can be a cause for discussion. Our comic is also new and visually appealing, grabbing the attention of those who may want to read it. Alongside our comic there is potential for expansion into other forms of campaigning such as interactive murals or street art where people are invited to leave their messages for others to see. 

Over time, in our scenario, we anticipate the social context, global tobacco industry and stakeholders to change. In the future, more countries will place tighter restrictions on tobacco as part of the signing of the WHO FCTC. As a result, the industry will put added pressure on Indonesia to continue to increase its production and demand for the consumption of tobacco products. In a social context, it will become more widely acceptable to smoke as a result of the pressure and a doubling on the production of advertisements that are placed in public areas. While stakeholders are still campaigning against the tobacco industry, it will be no match for the tobacco takeover. 

COMIC BEGINS 

Our hero Bayu takes a group of tourists on a tour,

Welcome to Jalan Marlboro! Sorry there is a lot of smoke, there’s nothing stopping people from smoking here. 

The smoke begins to take over. 

Bayu explains to the group, 

Many years ago, before being overtaken by the smoke, this street was lined with beautiful and vibrant stores selling lovely handmade crafts. Now all that remains are abandoned stalls with cigarette butts lying around the streets. 

No longer able to withstand the smoke, they exclaim ‘lets get away from all this smoke!’ 

They spot the only smoke free zone, the mall, and rush towards it, thwarted by the line snaking out and around the street as everyone is driven there for some relief from the smoke. The End.

Here’s some of our other printed materials we’d like to share.”

References:

Achadi, A., Croghan, I., Ebbert, J. & Hurt, R. 2012, Roadmap to a tobacco epidemic: transnational tobacco companies invade Indonesia, BMJ Journals, vol. 21, no. 3, viewed 21 November 2019,

https://tobaccocontrol.bmj.com/content/21/3/306.short

Aditama, T., Asma, S., Jones, N., Lee, J., Pradono, J., Rahman, Q. & Warren, C. 2008, Linking Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) data to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control: the case for Indonesia, Preventive medicine, vol. 47, viewed 12 December 2019,

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/5269770_Linking_Global_Youth_Tobacco_Survey_GYTS_data_to_the_WHO_Framework_Convention_on_Tobacco_Control_the_case_for_Indonesia

Ahsan, A. & Barber, S. 2009, The tobacco excise system in Indonesia: Hindering effective tobacco control for health, Journal of Public Health Policy, vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 208 – 225.

Danardono, M., Ng, N., Nichter, M., Padmawati, S. & Prabandari, Y. 2009, Reading culture from tobacco advertisements in Indonesia, BMJ Journals, vol. 18, no. 2, viewed 24 November 2019,

https://tobaccocontrol.bmj.com/content/18/2/98.short

Dhumieres, M. 2019, The number of children smoking in Indonesia is getting out of control, Public Radio International, unknown date, viewed 23 November 2019,  

https://www.pri.org/stories/number-children-smoking-indonesia-getting-out-control

Hidayat, B. & Thabrany, H. 2010, Cigarette Smoking in Indonesia: Examination of a Myopic Model of Addictive Behaviour, International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, vol. 7, no. 6, viewed 22 November 2019,

https://www.mdpi.com/1660-4601/7/6/2473/htm

Hull, T., McDonald, P., Reimondos, A., Suparno, H., Utomo, A. & Utomo, I. 2012, Smoking and young adults in Indonesia, Australian Demographic and Social Research Institute, vol. 1, no. 2, viewed 25 November 2019,

https://chr.ui.ac.id/wp-content/uploads/downloads/2013/06/policy_background_2_smoking.pdf

Lando, H. 2016, Promoting tobacco cessation in low- and middle-income countries, Cambridge Core, vol. 11, no. 2, viewed 22 November 2019,

https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/journal-of-smoking-cessation/article/promoting-tobacco-cessation-in-low-and-middleincome-countries/841A7ADD6DB9A77EA7BD3BE8DB871F46/core-reader

Luetge, C. & Tandilittin, H. 2013, Civil Society and Tobacco Control in Indonesia: The Last Resort, The Open Ethics Journal, vol. 7, viewed 10 December 2019,

https://benthamopen.com/ABSTRACT/TOJ-7-11

McCall, C. 2014, Tobacco advertising still rife in southeast Asia, The Lancet, vol. 384, no. 9951, viewed 20 November 2019,

https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(14)61804-3/fulltext

Ng, N., Ohman, A. & Weinehall, L. 2007, ‘If I don’t smoke, I’m not a real man’—Indonesian teenage boys’ views about smoking, Health Education Research, vol. 22, no. 6, viewed 22 November 2019, 

https://academic.oup.com/her/article/22/6/794/640787

Rosser, A. 2015, Contesting Tobacco-Control Policy in Indonesia, Critical Asian Studies, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 69 – 93.

The Tobacco Atlas, 2015, Indonesia, American Cancer Society, viewed 26 November 2019,

https://tobaccoatlas.org/country/indonesia/

World Health Organization, 2018, Factsheet 2018 Indonesia, Regional Office for South-East Asia, viewed 24 November 2019,

https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/272673/wntd_2018_indonesia_fs.pdf?sequence=1

Malio Creative 2040 Vision

The following script was presented as a speech at the Greenhost Boutique Hotel, Yogyakarta for a Global Studio UTS subject, regarding tobacco control in Malioboro Street.

Diah and Toni are characters situated in our 2040 vision. All other characters are from the Malio Creative organisation created to find tobacco control solutions. 

Diah :The year is 2040. The breeze is nice today in Jogja. I decided to ride my bike to Malioboro Street after a tiring day of work. I’m planning to meet up with my cousin Toni, to help him do his schoolwork. I like to hang at Malioboro as I feel that I can breathe fresh air, without being forced to passive smoke. I remember when I was growing up, things were so different. Everyone simply did as they pleased, no regard for the rules. The government has worked hard to ensure that public health is much more of a priority. Police are now patrolling the streets issuing fines for littering, and for smoking in prohibited zones. Today’s meeting with Toni is my opportunity to lecture him on the dangers of smoking. He is only 16 and is so easily influenced by his friends. It’s upsetting to see him smoke, considering I’ve dedicated my entire career to eliminating this issue. 

Toni:Oh hey, I’m just riding my solar powered scooter to Malioboro Street to meet up with my cousin. It’s obvious she’s only making me go there since it’s a no smoking zone. It’s been that way my whole life, but lately it’s become much more strict, due to the large scale of tobacco control. It’s really hard, sometimes I can’t control my urge to just pull out a cigarette. I’ve smoked on the street before,  but it felt extremely uncomfortable and socially unacceptable. I felt as though I was being judged. I learnt my lesson. I now only smoke in the allocated areas. Anyway, I’m meeting up with my cousin because shes a doctor and I want to give her my science project to complete. I can’t be bothered. I’m excited to see all the new interactive art installations while I’m there, I might also invite my friends. 

Brandon: It’s good to be back, 2040 seems like a year of improvement and change. As Diah mentioned, there’s still plenty of issues and things to work on, but wow it has changed so much since I was last here in 2019 with my uni.  I think it’s mainly because the government is committed to finding tobacco control solutions and has been working with vital strategies to ensure public health is a priority. I visited jalan Malioboro last night and the atmosphere was so pleasant. Without the hustle and bustle of traffic, the street is much more enjoyable. Take a look at some of the pics I took. The choice to make it a pedestrian area has allowed for bigger rest areas to be built and it’s so much more nicer to hang out with friends. I like that smoke isn’t constantly in your face. I’m surprised at the level of compliance with the smoking zones, it must be because of the patrolling police. 

Good Afternoon, we are all from Malio Creative, an organisation dedicated to creating a more attractive, enjoyable and healthy Malioboro. In 2040, we found that Malioboro is a much cleaner and healthier environment for the public. It is one of the leading areas in smoking compliance in all of Indonesia. We have come to these conclusions through thorough research. Through backcasting we were able to understand how we got here. 

We found that conducting primary on site research was extremely insightful and allowed us to gain an understanding of the rate of change and the movement of people within the area.  Whilst in Malioboro we observed the public and produced the following data:

We went on a 10 minute walk on the street, and recorded how many people were smoking in smoke free zones. This helped us to identify the issue of non compliance with the regulation. In total 73 people were smoking on our 10 minute walk. The highest rates of smoking were in the Mall area and around Circle K. The common factor here is that both are places where people go to buy cigarettes. 

We also conducted a test in front of the mall where we observed groups of people hanging out, both smokers and non smokers. As you, see the rate was much higher during the night time, as more people were out and about. 

Furthermore, we created a mapping system which allows us to visualise our data in a way that can be tracked over a 20 year period. This map tracks the density and distribution of smokers/ non-smokers, density of advertisements as well as changes made in the area. The mapping system forecast changes in the variables mentioned above in 5 year intervals over a 20-year period. A key was created to symbolise each variable; green dots represent non-smokers, red for smokers and black dots for advertisements. In the 2019 map, results reveal more smokers than non-smokers in Malioboro and a trend to congregate outside of the mall and in areas with public benches or places to sit. Furthermore, it was noted that there was a high density of advertisements found unrelated to a corresponding shopfront located near the mall. These results show a strong correlation between advertising, rest areas and density of people partaking in smoking.

In 2025, we envision the distribution of rest areas to be more spread out. The saturation of advertisements is reduced and none of which are related to tobacco due to the enforcement of legislation. The street is permanently converted into a pedestrian only zone and is represented wider on the map as it becomes part of the 2019 pedestrian pathway. This is to ease footpath congestion and overcrowding. 

In 2030, recycling bins are implemented into the town plan to help combat the severe problem of littering. Combined with many tobacco control campaigns and regulations, it can be seen that the rate of smoking in the area has rapidly decreased.

The year 2035 is a highly productive year in our timeline. A revamp of common resting spaces, some of which are strictly non-smoking, leads to a more evenly distributed population. This further eases congestion and density of passive smoking.

Finally, the map of 2040 suggests the success of reducing passive smoking and tobacco control in general. By 2040, tobacco legislations are enforced; there are rest areas for both smokers and non-smokers, recycling bins are introduced, pedestrian only zone, shaded areas and interactive art displays. This map exhibits the permanent art installations and the image on the left is an artistic impression of Malioboro art festival held every 35 days to encourage tourism and also provide a creative hub for locals. 

We compared some images from 2019 and 2040 to showcase how far we’ve come and to analyse how the changes we’ve made to the space, have altered the way people interact. Using the data we collected, we implemented certain changes in Malioboro, to enhance the atmosphere and overall experience for the public. 

From our findings, we noted that people did in fact want to be outdoors amongst others and thus, 2040 Jalan Malioboro has the perfect balance of shade and space.  We decided to revamp the buildings by repainting peeling walls, fixing broken signs and conducting a general clean up. Steps were taken such as adding grass, planting more trees, implementing recycling programs and a permanent pedestrian pathway to achieve a more sustainable future.  A bike rack has been included in order to encourage people to consider how their actions impact the environment when travelling. 

Our hope was to persuade people to use the bus or ride a bike, in our aim to create a highly sustainable future. We envisioned Malioboro as a creative hub for expression, whilst not impacting culturally valued aspects of the space such as the traditional markets.

The street as a whole now serves as a common space for everyone to enjoy and shade can be found almost everywhere. We concluded that people use space tailored to their personal desires. Through spatial design we aim to influence how people behave and interact within the space. This has been achieved through creating specific smoking rest areas, as tobacco control solutions for the space. 

Our aim is to promote a sustainable future where people are safe and their health is not affected by passive smoking. As you can see we have worked hard to find possible solutions and long term plans which can better Malioboro’s future. A lot has changed in 20 years but we’ve still got a long way to go. 

Timeline image references:

•Aku Kaos, 2018, RUTE DAN HALTE TRANS JOGJA TERBARU LENGKAP, viewed 12 December 2019, <https://jogjakaosoblong.blogspot.com/2017/08/rute-trans-jogja-terbaru-2017-lengkap.html&gt;.

•Falah, M. 2012, Ada Apa dengan World Tobacco Asia 2012?, Republika, viewed 11 December 2019, <https://www.republika.co.id/berita/gaya-hidup/info-sehat/13/05/10/jurnalisme-warga/wacana/12/09/24/mauac9-ada-apa-dengan-world-tobacco-asia-2012&gt;.

•Harsono, A. 2011, Public health suffers as Indonesia suffers as Indonesia ignores calls for tobacco reform, viewed 11 December 2019, <http://www.andreasharsono.net/2011/09/public-health-suffers-as-indonesia.html&gt;.

•Kunzyogya, 2015, BERINGHARJO MARKET (Pasar beringharjo) -A yogyakarta Traditional Market, viewed 12 December 2019, <https://www.yogya-backpacker.com/beringharjo-market-pasar-beringharjo/&gt;.

•Sentana, I. M & Hariyanto, J. 2014,Indonesia Tells Cigarette Makers to Put Warnings on Products, The Wall Street Journal, viewed 12 December 2019, <https://www.wsj.com/articles/indonesia-tells-cigarette-makers-to-put-warnings-on-products-1403618269&gt;.

•Subaktyo, B. 2001, Salah satu sudut jl. Malioboro Jogja, dengan berbagai pedagang kakilima, di trotoar, flickr, viewed 12 December 2019, <https://www.flickr.com/photos/bambang_bakti/3926039954/in/photolist-6YVYU3-B8wy2-399fMk&gt;.

Timeline Info References:

1.Britannica 2019, New Order-Indonesian history, Encyclopedia Britannica, viewed 12 December, <https://www.britannica.com/topic/New-Order-Indonesian-history&gt;.

2.Cahya, G. A., Mahendra, Y. K. D. & Damanik. I. I. 2017, Malioboro as a value of Special District of Yogyakarta City, viewed 11 December 2019, <https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1755-1315/70/1/012055/pdf&gt;.

3.Indonesia Investments, 2019, Asian financial crisis-cause and effect-Indonesia, Indonesia Investments, viewed 11 December, <https://www.indonesia-investments.com/culture/economy/asian-financial-crisis/item246&gt;.

4.Septirina, S. N., Takeo, O. &Satoru, K. 2016, ‘Conservation of Historical Architecture in Malioboro Street, Yogyakarta City, Indonesia’, Procedia -Social and Behavioral Sciences, vol. 225, pp. 259-269.

5.<https://whc.unesco.org/en/tentativelists/6206/&gt;.

6..<https://indonesiaexpat.biz/travel/history-culture/a-brief-history-of-tobacco/&gt;.

7..The World Bank, 2016, Indonesia’s Urban Story, World Bank, viewed 11 December 2019, <https://www.worldbank.org/en/news/feature/2016/06/14/indonesia-urban-story&gt;.

8.Rizky, I. P. A & Yulia, P. 2017, Malioboro as Soul of Yogyakarta City: Tourism Perception oAbout Malioboro District, viewed 12 december 2019, <http://www.uia2017seoul.org/P/papers/Full_paper/Paper/Poster/P-0701.pdf&gt;.

9.Tobacco Labelling Resource Centre, 2013, Health Warnings, viewed 11 December 2019,<https://tobaccolabels.ca/countries/indonesia/&gt;.

10.<https://indonesiaexpat.biz/news/indonesia-to-raise-cigarette-taxes-2017/&gt;.

11.The World Bank, 2019, The World Bank In Indonesia, World Bank, viewed 11 December 2019, <https://www.worldbank.org/en/country/indonesia/overview&gt;.

12.Pebriansyah, A., 2018, jogja plan to get rid of all tobacco advertising,Suara.com, viewed 12 December 2019, <https://www.suara.com/news/2018/11/07/155456/kota-yogyakarta-akan-tolak-iklan-rokok-di-semua-media-reklame&gt;.

Other References:

Adelin, F. 2015, Historical Photographs of Malioboro Street You Might Have Never Seen, viewed 11 December 2019, <https://en.brilio.net/wow/fascinating-historical-photographs-of-malioboro-street-historical-photographs-of-malioboro-1511057.

•Admin, 2019, Jalan Malioboro, The 24 Hours Street, TourJogja, viewed 11 December 2019, <https://tourjogja.com/read/18/jalan-malioboro-the-24-hours-street.html&gt;.

•Afifa, L. 2019, Cigarette Smoking Curbed in Yogyakarta’s Malioboro in November, viewed 11 december 2019, <https://en.tempo.co/read/1260662/cigarette-smoking-curbed-in-yogyakartas-malioboro-in-november&gt;.

•Ariefana, P. 2018, Kota Yogyakarta Akan Tolak Iklan Rokok di Semua Media Reklame, viewed 11 December 2019, <https://www.suara.com/news/2018/11/07/155456/kota-yogyakarta-akan-tolak-iklan-rokok-di-semua-media-reklame&gt;.

•Gideon, A. 2016, Rincian Kenaikan Harga Rokok Yang Berlaku Mulai 1 Januari 2017, viewed 11 December 2019, <https://www.liputan6.com/bisnis/read/2622165/rincian-kenaikan-harga-rokok-yang-berlaku-mulai-1-januari-2017&gt;.

•Hary, Y. W. 2012, Ada Demo Tandingan Kelompok Pro Rokok, viewed 11 December 2019, <https://jogja.tribunnews.com/2012/05/31/waah..ada-demo-tandingan-dari-kelompok-pro-rokok>.

•Kamah, W. 2016, Five Facts about Malioboro Street in Jogjakarta, Indonesia, viewed 11 December 2019, <http://writerwkamah.com/2016/03/20/five-facts-about-malioboro-street-in-jogjakarta-indonesia/&gt;.

•Tribun Jogja, 2013, Mulai 2014, Peringatan Bahaya Rokok Ditampilkan Lewat Gambar, viewed 11 December 2019, <https://jogja.tribunnews.com/2013/12/23/mulai-2014-peringatan-bahaya-rokok-ditampilkan-lewat-gambar?page=2&gt;.

KUNYIT: Windusari Farmers Union

The village of Windusari, perched 900 metres up the slopes of Mount Sumbing is home to both a large section of tobacco farms as well as a growing collective of farmers cultivating alternative crops such as vegetables and coffee beans. This week, we were lucky enough to explore the region and engage with the locals to better understand their ways of life.

Through our collective primary research, we synthesised two anecdotal stories that outline the issues of tobacco farming in the present, as well as envisioning a sustainable future through the shifting of crop cultivation and farmer empowerment. 

My father operates a large tobacco farm on the slopes of Windusari. The leaf he sells to the local Middle man is some of the best produced in the area; so my father is under a lot of pressure! He works many hours on the farm fertilising the soil so the crop grows faster. When the rain comes, especially in the wet season, it can destroy the yield quality and we make no money for the whole harvest. It has been raining more and more in the wet season for the past 3 years, extending into the typical dry season transition between March and April. The pressure has become so much that I have stopped my second year of senior high school, and begun helping my father fertilise and harvest the crop. I get sick from harvesting the leaf, I vomit nearly every day, sometimes I pass out and my mother takes me back to the home to take care of me. My father smokes tobacco cigars that the middlemen give him as incentive. My father is becoming sick… I try to tell him to consider another crop, but he says it’s impossible. I hear Coffee is being grown not far from here, it grows naturally in the unfertilised soil. They sell the coffee directly to cafes in Jogja for more than the value of the tobacco leaf.

15 years ago, My father passed away from throat and lung cancer, he was a tobacco farmer. My mother and brother inherited the farm, and we maintained it for the money, it was a stable business despite the risk of wet season. My brother and I always smoked, but my brother fell ill with Emphysema 3 years ago, he lives in the hospital now. The puskesmas helped me quit smoking, and I worked in Jogja as a Grab driver to save money. My neighbour in Windusari helped me rejuvenate the ground, and now I am a successful Ubii farmer. It is a versatile crop that is getting very popular in the mountains. Ubi is being exported to jogja in raw form, as chips, gluten free grain substitute and halal noodles & even Ice Cream!  We are now stable and influencing more farmers to move away from tobacco. The middle men aren’t happy, they threaten us but the farmers all stand strong together against the wicked tobacco industry.

Following on from 2019, more and more change was seen in Windusari and surrounds. Farmers were already diversifying their crops away from tobacco as the issues with tobacco farming became more widely understood in the community, and they discovered they could make higher profits without it. In Windusari sweet potato, Chilli and coffee were popular amongst the broad range being grown there. Tobacco farming firstly supports an industry which hurts and exploits people in Indonesia by advertising a toxic substance to young people. Secondly it is a risky crop to invest in, as weather changes can kill crops and cost farmers all their invested money. Thirdly, farmers work under harsh conditions, often getting nicotine poisoning through the pores of their skin. And lastly farmers don’t get enough money for their crops, as middle men take huge markups. In 2020, 4 farmers who shared their common concerns for sustainable farming began meeting up every Friday afternoon to share their skills, knowledge, and to support each other. Over time their movement began to grow as more and more farmers shared the same goal: to create a better life for farmers and villagers in Windusari. Meetings became more formal and were held monthly. 

The year is now 2040, the farmers collective movement has influenced other communities Java wide, which encouraged a decision for the unionisation of farmers. This birthed the Windusari Farmers Union, named proudly after the first farmers who inspired the movement back in 2019. The Union, abbreviated as WFU, takes on the structure of a democratic model, with members values dictating the roles of the Executive Board and Presidents. The union lobbies local government in order to fight for standardised pricing of crops. What makes this union unique is that it is small scale, community based, and run solely by farmers. Their main goal is to empower their own community. In 2040, the monetary value of crops have increased, and bring more profit back to the community. This can be attributed to lobbying the government for standardised pricing, as well as the increased quality of crops due to local workshops and sharing knowledge on farming and productivity. Workplace health and safety has become a priority, which increases the livelihood of all farmers. Sustainable dams and water reservoirs made from bamboo are popping up all over Magelang and surrounds. They were facilitated through workshops by the union, who emphasise the harsh weather conditions that climate change will bring to the area. Collecting water during the harsher wet season will ensure farms have enough resources to survive the extreme dry season and increased temperature that will be reality for 2040. Education is important for the WFU, and so they hold workshops and events regularly for the community, even the children. These extend further than farming, and include sports days, arts and crafts, and social get togethers. Essentially, the union has the power to bring better rights and pay to farmers, which will increase profits and fund education and resources. This leads to a better life in general for farmers which attracts residents to the area, creating a larger rural community, and enables even more resources, forming a positive cycle. This also counters the effects of urbanisation and increases profit and wellbeing. 

Our vision for Delimas farmlands in Windusari involves the rejuvenation of the already existing beginnings of a visitors centre. The Hollywood style Delimas sign will look down onto a hub for local tourists to come and learn about the region. The viewing platform facing the rolling hills of the mountains and farmland will feature informational signage and teach visitors about the different crops and topography of the land. It also serves as an awesome photo opportunity!  Because the area is now known for their high quality, artisan produce, market stalls are held on the first Sunday of every month. By 2040, Magelang will be a popular tourist destination for both locals and internationals, and so these markets bring lots of life to the area. Market products include fresh produce of fruit and vegetables, as well as chilli and coffee. Through the union’s education, the farmers have learned how to cut out the middleman and to prepare their own products for final sale. Jobs such as drying the potatoes and making sambal now belong to local farmers instead of larger corporations. In the market stalls, one will discover Magelang branded Sambal, artisan Coffee, and Ubi Crisps. The Magelang brand is recognised nationally and even internationally for its unique taste and quality. Rural life is also promoted through the Windusari Farmer’s union merchandise. Over the years the work that the union has done has helped change perceptions around farming work, and the general public are finding it a more and more attractive lifestyle. In the 2030s climate change has also really negatively impacted people’s perceptions of the city and technology in general. Windusari Farmers union promotes rural life by making farming ‘cool’. T-shirt’s are available for farmers themselves as well as other merch like tote bags which are available for the general public as a way to show their support in the movement. In 2040 farmers in Magelang and surrounds are proud of their profession and high quality produce. With the help of the Windusari Farmers Union, livelihoods of people like these guys have greatly improved. 

My name is Yama

My name is Yama Farras. I am 19 years old. I study International Communications at Universitas Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta.

It is the year 2019, and Yama is in his first year of university. Still trying to navigate the waters of full time study, he relies on his group of friends he has already made to make the experience a little easier.

His campus UMY is a smoke free environment, but pretty much everyone thinks the warnings aren’t effective enough and it shows. Yama and his mates smoke quite abit in the parking lot and in any other private place around campus.

Oi oi oi, Yama put your smokes away, there’s a lecturer coming

He made it safely this time. If communications students get caught smoking on campus, they have to sign a form saying that they won’t do it again. It’s just like a warning really.

At home, Yama lives with his Father Desi, who has smoked for as long as he can remember, his mother Dania who he has never seen smoke, his 16 year old sister and his 12 year old brother.

Even though throughout school he learnt about smoking and its effects, Yama still feels the obligation to smoke, due to looking up to his father and the pressure from his friends.

I know it’s not good for me but there’s something about it I can’t help. It makes me feel relaxed when I’m stressed. It’s something to do with my friends when we hang out.

2021 comes around and the smoke free campus committee have really been turning things around. There are multiple murals around campus, a comic that goes out every month, and a noticeable change in mindset around the stigma of smoking.

A more subliminal approach has led to a better understanding of the effects of smoking, as the messages conveyed are subconsciously read and acted upon.

Something really good has happened the past 2 years. Me and some of the boys always have a look at those comics when they come out. Smoke free campus is starting to work. I also met the girl of my dreams. Her name is Riyan.

Fast forward another 2 years and Yama has experienced some of the biggest ups and downs in his life.

Between finishing uni and marrying Riyan, he was feeling on top of the world until lung cancer got the best of his father Desi.

I got thinking to those years back at uni and how I started to come around to the smoke free campus at the end. I feel like now is the right time to do something.

Over the next 3 years, Yama smoked extremely rarely, and only when he felt very pressured in social situations. He even began to refuse the pressure eventually.

2026 came around and Yama smoked the last cigarette he ever would. He and Riyan were expecting their first child, Mirza, who came into the world in 2027.

Another addition to the family arrived 2 years later, a beautiful girl by the name of Aming. It is around this time that Yama returned to UMY helping with their smoke free initiative in his spare time.

Motivated by his own change of heart those few years ago, Yama believes that he can help change the mindset, particularly of young men, in such a crucial part of their lives.

Wanting to build the family even more, Efran was born in 2032, as happy and healthy as can be.

Mirza is now 6 years old and has started to make the connections between seeing smoking on the street and watching forgeign movies on TV.

Hey Dad, how come you don’t smoke?

After Yama explained his story, Mirza promised he would never smoke. Inspired by his dad in protecting his mind, body and soul forever.

The year is 2039. Aming is now 10 years old and wants to be just like her Dad and go to UMY to study.

Yama’s continuous volunteering has made every Universitas Muhammadiyah campus successfully smoke free.

My name is Yama Farras. I am 19 years old. I study International Communications at Universitas Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta.

It is the year 2019 and Yama is in his first year of university. Still trying to navigate the waters of full time study, he relies on his group of friends he has already made to make the experience a little easier.

His campus UMY is a smoke free environment, but Yama doesn’t care to acknowledge it. He carelessly smokes in the parking lot and places around campus that maybe aren’t so hidden.

Oi, oi oi, Yama put your smokes away, there’s a lecturer coming.

Except Yama doesn’t care. He’s already on 3 warnings, but the warnings are the only punishment, so he sees no real repercussions.

At home Yama lives with his father Desi, who has smoked for as long as he can remember, his mother Dania who he has never seen smoke, his 16 year old sister and his 12 year old brother.

Even though throughout school he learnt about smoking and its effects, he never paid attention. Yama feels the obligation to smoke, due to his father and the pressure from his friends if he didn’t.

It’s probably not even that bad for me and everyone does it anyway. All the people I know who smokes are fine.

2021 comes around and the smoke free campus thinks they have turned things around, except Yama and his friends still aren’t on the same page. The small no smoking signs and the insignificant repercussions have little effect on Yama’s mindset.

They keep on trying and trying but this no smoking thing is never going to work. It doesn’t matter though, I don’t need to quit because my girlfriend Riyan is all I need.

Fast forward another 2 years and Yama has felt some of the biggest ups and downs in his life.

Between finishing uni and marrying Riyan, he was feeling on top of the world until lung cancer got the best of his father Desi.

I mean I know I should quit. I no longer remember a time when I didn’t smoke. It just helps I guess.

Over the next 3 years, Yama smoked occasionally at home, but whenever he got the opportunity to smoke socially he would.

2028 came around and the pressure of his first year of fatherhood became a little too overwhelming, leading to him finding comfort in smoking regularly again.

Another addition into the family arrived in 2029. A beautiful girl by the name of Aming. During this time he becomes a workaholic and avoids spending time at home. His days working as a political risk analyst is spent surrounded by a cloud of smoke.

In attempts of filling the house up more, Yama and Riyan began trying for another child. However this proved difficult.

They discovered that due to the passive second hand smoke that Riyan has been surrounded by throughout both her child and adulthood, the chances of conceiving another child would be slim.

The arguments that Yama and Riyan would have about the affects of his smoking began to take effect on the children. Mirza especially.

A happy surprise came along in 2032, as Efran was born.

He filled the house with such joy, for only one short year.

Yama I think its time to stop. Your time was cut short with your father, think about Mirza and Aming. I beg of you.

Acting out for attention, Mirza would rebel and not come home from school for hours after it finished. He would sometimes smoke with his friends after school if they happened to find or steal cigarettes. He’s only 8 years old.

The year is 2039. Yama comes home heartbroken. Cancer in the lungs. His time with his wife and children will be cut short.

His name was Yama Farras. He was 38 years old.

This parallel journey of Yama is not only a story. It is a speculative design tool that can be used to design in this future landscape. Through the trials and tribulations of both the utopian and dystopian version of his stories, explored are the possibilities of the future.

It was presented as part of a global design studio conducted by design students of the University of Technology Sydney, based in Yogyakarta, Indonesia, as an effort to solve the wicked tobacco problem.

THE WINDUSARI PROJECT 2040

GROUP JAHE (Nick, Clarice, Jack, April, Rita)

There’s a small village an hour or so north of Yogyakarta in Central Java, at the foot of Mount Sumbing called Windusari. It is a unique area in central Java, being known for its mountains and colder climate in what we know to be a very hot country. Windusari is also an area that has relied on tobacco farming for almost 100% of their income in 2013.The local farming communities are struggling to create a more unique image, and want to be known for more than just tobacco farming. ‘The Windusari Project’ is a 20 year endeavour undertaken by the people of the area that aims to reclaim their ‘oleh oleh’, or locally famous food, the honey sweet potato and Indonesian Mountain coffee. In engaging with the diversification of crops, their tobacco crop will have been massively reduced to take up around 10%-20% of the Windusari area by 2040.

The area is only accessible by Angut-minivans like the ones we took to visit Spedagi, and is known for its mountainous crop fields and farms perched precariously upon steep, rolling hills. Farmers in this village have already recognised the wicked problem and influence of tobacco, and by 2020, Windusari is on track to have halved its tobacco crop. The other half of their land is used as a form of ‘farming diversification’, planting onions, garlic, coffee trees and most iconic of all, some of the sweetest potatoes in the world.But the fight against tobacco can’t stop here.

The Windusari Project will begin with a seasonal farmers market at the end of each sweet potato harvest, and will be celebrated 4 times each year as the potatoes take around 3 months between planting and collection. By planting more crops than just potatoes, fulfilling the local demand for onions, garlic and herbs, the local economy will be stimulated with a very low risk of failure, allowing for further education of farmers and their families to contribute to these markets. After a few years, having been planted in 2020, the first coffee crops will be ready for harvest, prompting a more affluent group of visitors to the region outside the time of the potato harvest, also opening the area for a larger export range. 

By 2040, the Windusari project will be in full force, exercising a balanced industry of produce by marketing its sweet potato business as a local social enterprise, and its coffee export and industry on a larger, and possibly more luxurious market. All of this is achieved with Windusari’s growth, engagement and education at the center of all thinking, ensuring the benefits of local produce, stay with local people.

Let’s fast-forward into the future. 2040 is now the current year, and the cultural life of Windusari is flourishing because of their agricultural initiatives. Today we’re going to look back at the features of the area that are so iconic today and unpack how the 2040 “Windusari Project” campaign is enhancing the rich and diverse culture of the region and contributing to the areas immense growth.

When Windusari was based on tobacco, the village had been a place of production for outside industries and it left the identity of the community greatly malnourished. However, the shift towards potato and coffee crops saw a change in the culture of Windusari. Farmers could reclaim their crops and the village had founded a deeply-rooted connection to their land through their staple food of honey sweet potatoes. This relationship between the people and their surroundings reflects the philosophy of Indonesian designer – Singgih Susilo Kartono. As he had once said, “if a country is like a tree, villages are the roots… the country is healthy if the villages are healthy.” The social movement started by Singgih has inspired villages to become a fusion of the city’s global connection with the rural setting, resulting in cyral communities.

From its early flourishing way back in 2020, the potato farms (as well as onions, garlic, some rice and herbs) of Windusari have been providing a constant form of income for many of the local families. Two types of sweet potato exist in these farms, the normal sweet potato, used in many local dishes as a savoury supplement to meals, and featuring in meals for families who cannot afford meat. Second, the honey sweet potato which is very rarely found anywhere other than these mountains of Indonesia. The Windusari project began with a long term goal in mind, and thus these potatoes laid the foundation for more affluent and luxurious crops such as coffee trees. 

In order for the local community to gain revenue from their harvest, a quarterly marketplace was established to celebrate the end of the harvest. It was just this small market of around 20 stalls that has now evolved into the festival that we know in 2040. The Windusari people knew that it would be a long process of attracting people from far and wide, so focused on attracting local visitors in the early days from Magelang and Yogya for their sweet potatoes, and after the event grew, the were able to better educate themselves on the opportunities of cooking, crafting and experimenting with the foods they could grow locally, and market their unique food at a larger and more geographically diverse audience.

The community centre is used for education. It is a place equipped for training and the sharing of ideas between the people of Windusari. Here, the community share ideas on experimental farming, new recipes, phases of production, and many more. The centre provided a space for the community to collaborate, allowing varied disciplines to inspire one another. What the community had found was that with more and more visitors coming to try their iconic honey sweet potatoes, an area for rest and refreshment was also needed. Therefore, the centre is equipped with facilities like bathrooms, kitchens and open spaces for everyone that gathers here to be comfortable.

In 2019, 20 years ago farmers of Windusari, such as Mr Suwandi, revealed the potential and appeal to coffee beans. This was evident in the government’s provision of 500 coffee bean seeds.

Today, Windusari has utilised coffee as a distinct source of economy appealing to a more luxurious market. Sweet potato has become the heart and source of economy for the local community, whereas coffee has grown to become a prospect for the international market, with visitors providing another source of cashflow for the region. Sweet potato keeps people alive, where coffee makes a life worth living ( WINK AT ALI ). Taking advantages of peoples love for such crop, Windusari provides visitors with the privilege of enhancing their knowledge and experiences as they follow the process of coffee making themselves with their official tour guide, who is a local member of the farming community.

When combining Windisari’s strengths; sustainable agriculture, sweeping mountainous vistas and a rich culture we visioned a harvest festival celebrating the local area. As mentioned before Honey sweet potatoes and coffee are a potential opportunity to create both culture and tourism revenue and these could be celebrated in a festival format. Honey Sweet potatoes are harvested quarterly and coffee beans harvested annually this opens up option of 3 smaller festivals and 1 large festival. Following a traditional Harvest festival model the festival in Windusari is a form of  local showcase attracting a small number of international tourists but is targeted to a local just above grassroots level. Our interviews and research indicated the government is pushing for more inter regional tourism and  Windusari is ripe for controlled development. Celebrating its 10th year in 2040 it was started a grassroots initiative to attract attention to the area and highlight the need for government stimulus to farming. Over the course of this period the festival cemented the potato and coffee identity which was central to the area

People have been travelling far and wide, particularly from the far corners of Indonesia to explore the magically mountainous farms, taste the unique and rich mountain coffee beans, and savour the scrumptiously satisfying taste of sweet potatoes, as well as sweet potato brownies, sweet potato ice-cream, sweet potato crackers and even sweet potato noodles. 

A component which was also important to consider is the road quality and air pollution caused by the influx of visitors as they travel to and from Windasari. In order to avoid the crowded roads and excessive amounts of cars, Windasari has created a service which allows visitors to park just outside of the town with access to angkut-minivan services provided by the locals themselves to reach the area. By taking this  approach, Windasari is able to boost the local economy and reduce emissions, while also ensuring the safe passage of people who may not know the roads as well as locals.

Due to the increase of visitors into Windasari due to events such as the festivals, markets, and tours, you would think that there would be an increase of waste in the surrounding environment. HOWEVER, Windasari has managed to tackle this problem and unbelievably even benefit from the waste of their visitors. This has been achieved by using natural and sustainable resources such as leafy food wrappings, 

bamboo straws and spoons that can be disposed of in compost stations around the village. These bins would ensure the waste is managed in the best way possible, and would feed back into the local produce production, to be used as compost for coffee and potato farming.

Today, Windusari have worked to further diversify their crops of sweet potato and coffee, and plantations that have increased in demand such as garlic and onion.

The diversification of crops has proven to become a safety net for potential crop failure as a result of external factors such as weather conditions. Once the economy gains a strong balance of coffee and potatoes for the community, Windusari are able to move to experimenting with introducing more crops and funds for experimental diversification. 

With more and more visitors coming to Windusari to explore the region, it was clear that there was a need for more infrastructure. However with new construction comes the risk of land degradation. Therefore these additions will be done by revamping existing and unused infrastructructure, with the inclusion of rooftop gardens to plant more delicate crops such as herbs and small fruits. There are plans to expand the community centre to become a Bed and Breakfast. The additions will be of a small greenhouse for those who’d like to view the crops but can’t access the tours, and the beds will be provided for those who will need a place to sleep. This plan for Beans, Bed and Breakfast is to provide a space suitable for visitors to learn about Windusari in a comfortable space, with the focus still on the livelihood and the culture of the community.

Tobacco is now a very minor part of the agricultural area of Windusari. In effect, the communities drive and ambition to gain a more unique identity has designed out the wicked problem of tobacco. In doing this, Windusari has created a social enterprise with its best interests taking center-stage, using all of their local resources to feed back into their communal benefit.

Project: UMY 2040

UMY campus is a place vibrant with culture, and rich with tradition, backed by strong values and a drive among staff to fulfil these. While a smoke-free campus has been implemented, tobacco culture is still ever prevalent on campus, reflecting the lack of government initiative to combat the wicked problem. 

At the heart of the UMY campus is the 8 point star, a recurring motif found throughout the architecture of the campus. It’s significance to Islamic culture derives from its use throughout the Qur’an, as a calligraphic symbol to mark the end of a chapter, signifying a new beginning (Ancient Symbols, 2017). Our future scenario brings this symbolism to life, as we use the stars physical structure on the campus, as a platform to begin a new chapter, focused on sustainability and community; in effect closing the chapter of tobacco.


Proposed structure to be built upon the pre-existing cafeteria building

Our solution is green. We envision a campus with its own ecosystem, in which students, staff, flora and fauna work together to promote sustainable living. We were heavily inspired by the already in place ‘green systems’, which from our research, highly resonated with the student body. Campaigns encouraging students to reduce the amount of plastic they produce have had a positive response, with students expressing their visions for an environment free from pollution.

We envision the transformation of the pre-existing cafeteria building, to be turned into a lively eco hub. The downstairs will remain a cafeteria space, with inviting places to socialise, share meals, collaborate and create. The roof floor which is currently, mostly unused will feature an agricultural ecosystem. Local fruits, vegetables and herbs will be grown here, to be harvested and used in the kitchen below.

The construction and maintenance of this communal space will bring students and staff together, educating and promoting a culture around sustainable living. Bringing students into this centralised area will drive them out of the regions behind buildings generally known for smoking, and provide them with an alternative activity to do between and after classes. By providing vibrant, social spaces, we hope to gradually break the habits of smoking in free time, eventually leaving no room for tobacco culture.

Looking at the current context of successfully integrated green campaign that resonate highly with students. Our timeline suggests that to achieve a smoke free campus, the promise for a techno eco sustainable utopia will be the driving frontier for a social movement around anti smoking, not only educating for health but also environmental impact. For example by 2028 renewable green infrastructure has been planned and begins to take form on the campus, thus with physical instillations and the ever growing green movement students actively support their pro-green eco systems and eradicate smoking in university spaces.


An example piece of work from the anti-cigarette green social movement posted around the campus. Apart from the catchy English nouns the poster translates to ‘please don’t smoke on our campus, it not only damages our air quality but also our beautiful hand built ecosystems’.

There is a fairly significant colony of stray cats on the UMY campus and we see those cats as a metaphor for the concepts behind the environmentally friendly and sustainable movement we have created. Through our research and interviews we found that cats have incredible significance in Islam, they are mentioned in the Qur’an a number of times noting that they are respected as members of the family and protectors of the houses against deadly insects. We decided rather than eliminate all the stray cats we saw on campus we decided to defy the status quo of seeing stray cats as pests and incorporated them into our vision of what we see the campus to be like in 20 years time By purposefully including cats in our vision it challenges the stereotypical concept of fauna absent ecosystem. 

In terms of a timeline considering the cats on campus, currently we can see the cats that they do not seek out humans for anything more than food scraps and there is no relationship between humans and the cats with nothing cat specific on campus. We noticed that the cats were eating fish from the water features on campus to feed themselves and their kittens and were inspired by the fact they were living a self sufficient life to launch our idea of incorporating them in a larger more specific role in our idea of the ecosystem of UMY in 2040.

In the years between now and 2040 taking steps toward the end goal could include more awareness of the cats on campus and educating students on respecting them and not seeing them as pests through signage or lectures. In 2040 we envision that the cats on campus are no longer considered stray but part of the ecosystem with cat specific systems and structures in place. We’ve designed bamboo structures throughout including an irrigation system for them to drink from not too dissimilar to the one that was seen on campus. Cat faeces are an excellent fertiliser due to the high levels of phosphorus and could be used when tending to the gardens on campus. We envisage that there are societies and groups dedicated to the care and awareness of the cats and that the cats could be used as “therapy animals” for people on campus. That cats are seen as an integral part of of the on campus community and a source of connection and give purpose to those who want it.

The bamboo structure, built upon the star was a school community project, carried out over the course of 3 years. Students were provided the opportunity to come up with an innovative design that responded to the local tropical climate. The winning design features 3 channels in the roof of the structure, that use bamboo panels to guide and funnel the water into irrigation and storage systems. Doing so ensures water from the monsoon season is maximised across the dry season, while also creating partial protection to the more fragile plants growing below during heavy rainfall. Student and staff members worked together to build the structure, in a program to educate students on sustainable methods of construction, and create a deeper connection to the campus.

Design of roof structure, featuring 3 channels made from bamboo paneling, to guide and funnel rainwater into irrigation and storage systems.

Top floor features:

  • composting and vegetation
  • Sustainable nature of whole project, being an ecosystem 
  • waterfall, pumping irrigation system, pond, stream, rainfall
  • Walkway on the exterior of the bamboo structure, 
  • Appropriating existing unused space for greenery leisure
  • Covered in flora mainly grass and more robust plantations that don’t need much upkeep. Students can walk around the exterior of the structure
  • Stationed bamboo furniture

Scene from top floor, showing a student enjoying the agriculture on the top floor

Bottom floor features:

  • trading style society within bottom of the structure,
  • Functionality of bottom structure:
  • there will be praying mats, 
  • seating for dining, study and leisure/freetime/ socialising
  • Ring of plantations around the central pod where there is ease of exposure to lights, 
  • minimal instillations of native rainforest plants that can live in darker, That will be sustained by the overarching  water irrigation systems
  • kitchen/work area for preparing meals, harvesting crops and interacting with the surrounding sustainable farming practices

Scene from bottom floor, featuring students enjoying the cafeteria area

Bibliography

Barker, A, 2018, ‘Jakarta has a serious cat problem: containing it is dirty work’, ABC News, 19 March 2018, viewed 14 December 2019, <https://www.abc.net.au/news/2018-03-19/inside-jakartas-battle-to-control-feral-cats/9541636>.

Lim, J. 2012, ‘The whiskers syndicate’, WordPress, viewed 14 December 2019, <https://whiskerssyndicate.com/about/>.

Morgan, L. 2017, ‘Build it right: determining greenhouse design by climate’, Maximum Yield, 13 July 2017, viewed on 14 December 2019, <https://www.maximumyield.com/build-it-right-determining-greenhouse-design-by-climate/2/950>.

2017, ’Rub el hizb symbols’, Ancient Symbols, viewed 14 December 2019, <https://www.ancient-symbols.com/symbols-directory/rub_el_hizb.html>.

2019, ‘Tobacco legislation and policy timeline’, Acosh, viewed 14 December 2019, <https://www.acosh.org/law-policy/wa-tobacco-control-legislation/tobacco-legislation-and-policy-timeline/>

Group Cengkeh: Smoke Free Malioboro

In 2040, Malioboro St is a nation-wide success story in the wicked fight against tobacco. It is an eco-friendly, vibrant public space created through its socially diverse landscape of music, art and bicycle initiatives. The entire area is a complete smoke free zone as well as motor free zone thanks to the campaign #SuaraTanpaRokok and #TransportasiTanpaBensin.

complete vision for Malioboro 2040

The campaign’s highly recognised, interactive mural of coloured and personalised stickers has reached an audience of 20,000 people who have contributed either messages of encouragement or personal achievement through their commitment to give up smoking completely.

Under Vital Strategie’s #TransportasiTanpaBensin movement and their collaboration with Jogja Bikes, the street is covered with 280 bicycles with 40 of these being eco-friendly Spedagi Bamboo Bikes. In 5 years’ time, Spedagi Bamboo Bikes will replace the standard metal frames as a means of promoting and contributing to sustainable future.

Due to the popularity of smoke free bicycle riding, an all inclusive bicycle subculture has emerged with equal number of female and male riders, who take advantage of the #WatchJogjaBikes movement every Sunday to improve and beat their timed ventures from the previous week. For those who love a more leisurely and sight-seeing experience, there are currently three designated bike tours fit for both locals and tourists.

Annually, Indonesians eagerly anticipate the national Malioboro Sprint event, which is made up of 240 elite men and women from across the country and is broadcasted internationally to a large viewing audience. It is a charitable event, with all proceeds funding anti-smoking initiatives such as Vital Strategies and MTCC to further their clinical research. This year’s aim is 500 million rp, after raising 430 million rp last year.

The district of Malioboro hopes to be an example of what the rest of Yogyakarta could be as well as inspire a whole Indonesian culture that prevents the existence of the smoking epidemic.

In the context of 2019, Malioboro St has a proposed non-smoking law under the Governments Decree No.2, beginning in 2017, with 4 proposed smoking areas along the street. Visiting Malioboro St in 2019, there are visually no signs or clear directions for smokers to group in segmented areas across Malioboro, or are any authoritative enforcing the decree. Men dominate the communal population at night time, often seen socially smoking along Malioboro St, around children, at restaurants and at stalls. Young groups of teenage boys are seen hanging out with little to do, smoking and chatting as their predecessors did. Women are scarce in this environment, and teenage girls are virtually extinct. During the day the side walk isn’t as busy as night, however more women are noticeable at this time. Second hand smoke is a huge issue. Street vendors sell cigarettes with ease of access at cheap prices and seem un-phased by the buyers age.

In 2020, the launch of Malioboro St campaign #TransportasiTanpaBensi , translated to ‘Transportation Without Fuel’, and Vital Strategies already popular 2015 hashtag #SuaraTanpaRokok, (Voices Without Cigarettes) are implemented through public engagement in social media, activating the beginning of a street art movement that will engulf Malioboro. ‘#VoicesWithoutCigarettes’ is implemented as a public art hashtag for individuals to engage in both conversationally and through social media.  Car free Sunday has been implemented as a pollution prevention scheme under the umbrella of ‘Transportation Without Fuel’ program, allowing community members to engage in casual bike riding and walking as a form of physical exercise.

 In 2021, partnership with existing Malioboro St share bikes ‘Jogja Bikes’ is implemented with a small but powerful rebranding of the bikes with an inclusion of a new ‘Smoke Free Jogja Bikes’ logo, and both #TransportationWithoutFuel and #VoicesWithoutCigarettes printed on either side of the bike to reinforce the health-conscious message. The launch of ‘Watch Jogja Bike’ Sunday event will coincide with Car Free Sunday as an all-inclusive fitness event where participants will scan their personalised barcode through the existing ‘inabike’ app to enter, and then cycle there chosen 2K, 5K, 10K so on… track set up via digital GPS. Each Race is time scored so individuals compete with themselves to improve their fitness at their own pace, making it easier for individuals to become involved in more social aspects. A street mural has been started under there #VoicesWithoutCigarettes campaign, beginning on the corner of a laneway where a lot of Jogja’s street art thrives. Individuals will be given a blank coloured sticker with space to write something encouraging or personal about their journey towards quitting smoking, making their own mark on the landscape. Local artists will be employed on one Wage Tuesday to reinvent the vibrancy of Malioboro St, turning ash tray bins into plant boxes with no smoking signs, while also adding their own artwork to the outside. The unused Jogja Bikes information panels will be turned into motivational messages for healthy living without smoking, for example, “After 2-12 weeks of no smoking, your blood circulation and lung function begin to improve. More stamina to ride your bike!”

In 2022, due to the popularity and success of Vital Strategies ‘Watch Jogja Bike’ weekly event, Malioboro has seen a significant increase in the amount of ‘Smoke Free Jogja Bikes’ and personal bikes used weekly, with its bike subculture growing in scale. The yearly charitable event ‘Malioboro Sprint’ has begun as a way of creating national attention towards both #VoicesWithoutCigarettes and #TransportationWithoutFuel movement. The event will begin as a local competition, engaging equal percentage of both women, girls, men and boys in a more elitist performance focus, making for a great viewing experience. Entrants will race in their specified category in groups of 4 and will be time ranked until the final race, building the anticipation for the crowd to stay around all day to watch the event. Through the competitor’s fee, sponsorships and public donations, money will be raised for smoke free organisations such as the MTCC. With the popular increase in Sunday’s ‘Watch Jogja Bike’ event, volunteers from organisations such as Kota Kita (an Indonesian grass roots organisation that promotes informed and empowered citizens) will be present under there ‘Women On Wheels’ project, encouraging empowerment for women and girls to fully and equally participate in socioeconomic attainment, while promoting the values of a sustainable smoke free and liveable city. Volunteers from Jogja Bikes will also be present running mental health talks, encouraging positivity and understanding in an age where mental health is apparent.

In 2025, Jogja Bikes has implemented a further 50% increase in bikes available along Malioboro St and has increased access to pick up points by 20%. Jogja Bikes has now implemented a self-guided bike tour, with signage around the city to help guide both the tour. Due to the popular communal acceptance of both #VoicesWithoutCigarettes and #TransportationWithoutFuel schemes, Malioboro has now become a completely smoke free zone.

In 2030, the self-guided bicycle tour has now added an extra 2 routes for locals and tourists to engage with. The ‘Voices Without Cigarettes’ public mural has been a massive success, covering a 3rd of one side of Malioboro St. The yearly ‘Malioboro Sprint’ event has increased dramatically in participant engagement and has seen a total donation of 150million rp due to its national broadcast. Statistics gathered from #VoicesWithoutCigarette sign up forms reveal that 60% of participants have completely quit smoking, with others having reduced their smoking intake.

In 2035, the ‘Malioboro Sprint’ event has is now internationally broadcasted, hence raising 300million rp for smoke free organisations. The weekly ‘Watch Jogja Bike’ event has become a huge success within the city of Yogyakarta, engaging community from families to elite athletes in equal numbers women and men.

Lack of public acceptance towards the campaign will result in loss of much needed funding for Vital Strategies and MTCC, as well as reduced public health awareness that will further promote the social acceptance and advocacy of tobacco smoking. This will increase the already high 68% of male smokers to 80% and will break into the female market with invasive advertisement schemes. This will allow tobacco companies to further take advantage of the young impressionable minds that they already advertise towards. Due to the increase in social acceptance, the government will surpass the existing $62.2 billion Aus. spent annually on medical resources that fight the crisis, projecting to be $80 billion Aus. by 2030. This is 5.5 times the amount earned annually from the tobacco industry, pushing the government into high risk of economic failure and collapse. To fight this projected threat, the government needs to implement a public hashtag, mural and street art scheme with involvement from local Javanese artists to create communal, regional and national conversation around the tobacco epidemic. This will implement efficiently due to Malioboro’s already high occupancy of local and international groups. Currently, smoking for men in Indonesia is considered acceptable on a sociable and cultural scale. If we were to implement and enforce the smoke free zones along Malioboro Street now, communal backlash would occur towards government and health organisations which would deeply impact the implementation of a smoke free Malioboro, and decrease the efficiency at which our #WatchJogjaBike and ‘Malioboro Sprint’ events would be accepted by local Javanese people.

With the implication of engaging health activities, the future of Malioboro is one full of colour and community that we hope everyone will be able to experience.