POST D: Toxic culture of tobacco advertising:

With aggressive tobacco advertising, bombarding the urban and rural environments of Indonesia; smoking rates are among the highest worldwide. Tobacco culture in Indonesia is immensely unhealthy, as 34% of the population are regular smokers. Nation-wide, 63% of men and 5% of women smoke daily (Tobacco Atlas). Over 225,700 Indonesians die annually of tobacco caused diseases. The lack of government regulated advertising bans are accountable for theses shocking statistics. The low public awareness of the manipulation carried out by the tobacco industry, will impact the lives of youth dramatically; as they are the target audience of current tobacco campaigns. Over 30% of Indonesian children have smoked cigarettes by the age of 10. The appalling tobacco culture in Indonesia is setting up the youth of the country, for a life of sickness caused by tobacco addiction from early childhood. The complacency of the government is a driving force for the lack of regulations against tobacco, due to the fact that Indonesia is one of the largest tobacco producers worldwide. The Indonesian government fails to see the long term effects and economic losses caused by cigarettes, instead prioritising annual economic gains.

Map displaying the rates of smoking in Indonesia.

Indonesia remains the only country in the Asia Pacific Region that has not yet signed or implemented the World Health Organisations ‘Framework Convention on Tobacco,’ as well as, not having implemented any bans on Tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorships (TAPS). Thus, Indonesian tobacco culture and the advertising industry around it, is a highly unrestricted and free environment. The nature of tobacco advertising nationwide is increasingly creative and somewhat, aggressive. The tobacco industry wishes to promote associations between smoking and emotional control, as well as masculinity, modernity and traditional values. With 88% of Indonesian smokers using clove-flavoured kreteks, this type of cigarette is marketed as an Indigenous Indonesian product, upholding an image of nationalism and traditional values. It is this kind of manipulation which the Indonesian people are victims of as the industry exploits traditional associations with tobacco, in order to gain consumers.

A 2017 study including 360 schools in 5 of the largest Indonesian cities, found that 54% of schools observed were surrounded by advertisements, and promotions showcasing discounts, competitions and sponsorships relating to tobacco (Astuti IS, 2017). This is a clear example of the industries aim to target youth and lure them into the world of tobacco addiction. Furthermore, tobacco culture in Yogyakarta is unavoidable, as advertisements ‘saturate the landscape’ (Nichter M, Padmawati S, Danardono M, 2009) with Kretek ads featured at every corner and on every billboard. Contrastingly, within a global context, most countries have banned tobacco advertising (such as Australia) since recognising the destructive impacts of smoking. The high exposure to TAPS alongside cheap and easily accessible cigarettes has resulted in high smoking rates amongst Indonesians (Astuti PAS, Freeman B, 2017). The devastating social and economic impacts of tobacco induced diseases can be easily prevented by implementing effective tobacco control policies and advertising bans. 

References:

Achadi, A, Soerojo, W., Barber, S, 2004, The relevance and prospects of advancing tobacco control in Indonesia, Science Direct, viewed 22 November 2019 <https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S016885100400209X>.

Astuti IS, Freeman B, 2017,  “It is merely a paper tiger.” Battle for increased tobacco advertising regulation in Indonesia: content analysis of news articles, viewed 22 November 2019 <https://bmjopen.bmj.com/content/7/9/e016975>. 

Astuti IS, 2017, Educating Youth Against Tobacco Advertising: A Media Literacy Approach for Reducing Indonesia’s Replacement Smokers, Volume 10, viewed 22 November 2019 <https://ejournal.unisba.ac.id/index.php/mediator/article/view/2677/pdf>. 

Catherine, R, 1999, Tobacco advertising in Indonesia: “the defining characteristics for success”, BMJ Journals, viewed 22 November 2019 <https://tobaccocontrol.bmj.com/content/8/1/85>.

Kristina, Widayanti, Widiastuti, Mentari, 2016,  Health-related quality of life among smokers in Yogyakarta Province, Indonesia, viewed 22 November 2019 <https://www.researchgate.net/publication/303120597_Health-related_quality_of_life_among_smokers_in_Yogyakarta_Province_Indonesia>. 

Nichter M, Padmawati S, Danardono M, 2009, Reading culture from tobacco advertisements in Indonesia, Tobacco Control 2009, BMJ Journals, viewed on 22 November 2019 <https://tobaccocontrol.bmj.com/content/18/2/98>. 

Tobacco Atlas, 2019, Indonesia, viewed 22 November 2019 <https://tobaccoatlas.org/country/indonesia/>. 

Post B: Boobs Boobs Boobs

Man-Boobs, is a quirky video campaign posted on April 19th, 2016 which borrows a pair of ‘man-boobs’ to raise awareness on breast cancer and instruct individuals on the methods of early detection in breast cancer. The creators of this viral video were Movimiento Ayuda Cáncer de Mama (MACMA),  a non-profit organisation situated in Argentina and the agency creatives from DAVID Buenos Aires, those involved wanted to utilise social media as their platform to educate those about Breast Self-Examination (BSE) but were highly prevented by censorship laws, as Joaquin Cubria the creative director states “breast are not very welcomed; they are censored”, yet through the involvement of man boobs, not only did they involve the participation of men, but cleverly avoided obscenity.

Breast are not very welcomed; they are censored

Joaquin Cubria

In media man-boobs are usually delineated as an unattractive figure, yet they convert this negative stereotype to humorously enforce a cause.  It was overwhelmingly successful in reaching a wider audience and in result of the campaign, patients, oncologist, psychologists, volunteers, benefactors and brands joined MACMA. The video garnered umpteen exposure at 43 million views and 193 million impressions on social media, even winning first place at the International Festival of Creativity, Cannes Lion Festival 2016. Becoming the most shared BSE video in history, not only did they educate people, it ignited debates on censorship policies and the state of gender equality. This video catalysed education and recognition of the over sexualisation of women breasts in media.

MACMA: Man boobs for boobs, Video campaign

There are several factors which created such success, apart from its humorous, creative demonstration, the clarity, simplicity and concise nature effectively allowed it to be welcomed in the social media environments. Easily accessible and universal everyone could enjoy, understand and appreciate its worth. Also, it further inquired the involvement of men, not only targeting women, they introduced the possibility that men are also exposed to breast cancer. Creating the hashtag ‘#manboobsforboobs, this included the participation of all genders.

From this we can reflect on the importance of policies, despite strictures, designers should creatively circumvent the problem. Especially when designing a tobacco control intervention campaign for Central Java, it becomes important to understand the laws and cultural practices, to relate and socially engage with the audience. Economically, tobacco is a large market in Indonesia, as smoking is believed to enhance masculinity, when influencing behavioural change, it is always important to “prevent possible adverse social and economic impact” [World Health Organization 2005]. Further clearly explaining the justification for  behavioural change, ultimately educating “ people to understand the harmful effect of tobacco better” [World Health Organization 2005] would naturally encourage change.

Reference

MACMA 2016, MACMA en los Medios, Florencia Morén, Chaco 40 – 4th B, Buenos Aires City viewed 22 November 2019. <http://www.macma.org.ar/medios>

World Health Organization 2005, WHO FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON TOBACCO CONTROL, 20 Avenue Appia, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland.<https://www.who.int/tobacco/framework/WHO_FCTC_english.pdf>

N. HoussamiS. CiattoF. MartinelliR. BonardiS. W. Duffy 2009, Early detection of second breast cancers improves prognosis in breast cancer survivors, Annals of Oncology, Volume 20, Issue 9, Oxford University Press. <https://academic.oup.com/annonc/article/20/9/1505/218134>

Maurer Foundations 2019, How to do a Breast Self-Exam, Zubko Media, Melville, New York, viewed 22 November 2019. <https://www.maurerfoundation.org/about-breast-cancer-breast-health/how-to-do-a-bse-breast-self-exam/>

Mimi NichterS. PadmawatiM. DanardonoN. NgY. PrabandariMark Nichter 2009, Reading culture from tobacco advertisements in Indonesia,  BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.,  Emil Haury Building, Tucson, Arizona, USA. <https://tobaccocontrol.bmj.com/content/18/2/98>

Video

Adsoftheworldvideo 2016, MACMA: Man boobs for boobs, campaign video, Youtube, viewed 22 November 2019. <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fz4c9zrVZZk&feature=emb_title>

Post B: Morbid Creativity

By Ronan Collins

As a child, no public health campaign left a more memorable impact than the Metro Trains Melbourne campaign to promote railway safety; Dumb Ways to Die. Since it’s 2012 creation, the campaign evolved into a multi-channel transdisciplinary product branching over almost every conceivable form of media. Intended to reduce avoidable deaths and accidents around Melbourne train-tracks, it aimed to change the public mindset towards unsafe behaviour. 

Metro Melbourne, 2012, Dumb Ways to Die, Video Recording.

Metro Trains hired advertisement agency McCann Melbourne with aims at creating entertainment rather than didactic advertising (Mescall 2013). Prime objectives included a reduction of accidents around level crossings and station platforms, the generating of PR regarding the message of rail safety, the creation of a safety pledge system and to largely increase public awareness around train transport (Australian Effie Awards 2013). With its first implementation being a YouTube video uploaded 12 November 2012; within 14 days the video had reached 30 million views. This success can be credited to a multitude of design choices; both the song and animation’s simplistic and catchy direction combined with the use of humour in its premise. It received an extremely warm reception which extended much further than Victoria, promoting railway safety throughout Australia. This evolved into a multi-channel product with assets of the campaign transformed into teaching tools for kids in the form of a book, video games, and more song releases (Diaz 2013). Locally, Metro Train posters featuring previously animated characters were placed in and around stations.

According to Metro Trains general manager Leah Waymark, the campaign saw a 20% drop in “risky behaviour” within 3 months of the video’s release (Waymark 2013). Within a year, the near miss and accidents per million kilometres decreased from 13.29 to 9.17 (McCann 2013). Although the campaign had a large impact on a younger audience than expected, and is suggested to have not impacted the target demographic to such a degree (Ward 2015). Adrian Mills stated that the impact of the campaign has transformed into a more long term model with a “cohort of young Victorians who have played a rail safety message on their phones by the time they start taking public transport themselves”.

Universally, the nature of subverting the expectations of a public service announcement in a method which is both simplistic and appealing can be further explored. Similar tactics can be used in raising awareness regarding the ‘addictive and harmful’ nature of Tobacco (FCTC 2015) with a focus on public consumers making ‘dumb’ choices. 

References:

Diaz, A. 2013, ‘Inside Dumb Ways to Die’, ‘Advertising Age’, vol. 84, Iss. 40, pp. 4-7.

Katumba, K. 2018, ‘Campaign of the week: Dumb Ways to Die’, Smart Insights, 28 September, viewed 20 November 2019, <https://www.smartinsights.com/digital-marketing-strategy/campaign-of-the-week-dumb-ways-to-die/>.

McCann Melbourne, 2012. Dumb Ways to Die Posters, Metro Trains, viewed 21 November 2019, <http://theinspirationroom.com/daily/2012/metro-dumb-ways-to-die/>.

Metro Melbourne, 2012, Dumb Ways to Die, Video Recording, YouTube, viewed 19 November 2019, <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IJNR2EpS0jw>.

Ward, M. 2015, ‘Has Dumb Ways to Die Been Effective?’, Mumbrella, 30 January, viewed 20 November 2019, <https://mumbrella.com.au/dumb-ways-die-stopped-dumb-behaviour-around-trains-270751>.

World Health Organisation, 2015, ‘WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control: Guidelines for Implementation of Article 5.3 Articles 8 to 14’, 2013 Edition, World Health Organisation, Geneva Switzerland. 

Post B: The Dark Side of Tanning

Australia is the home to some of the most beautiful coastlines in the world, consequently, it also has one of the highest amounts of skin cancer and mortality rates across the globe. The 1980s saw the beginnings of social marketing campaigns Australia-wide to raise awareness of the dangers of skin cancer and means to prevent it, marking the start of the ongoing efforts to prompt change in the behaviours and attitudes of the population.

Lead by the Cancer Institute of NSW, ‘The Dark Side of Tanning’ (‘DSOT’) campaign was introduced in 2007 in order to challenge pro-tanning attitudes specifically amongst young Australians between the ages of 15 and 29. Melanoma is the most common form of cancer in this demographic (Sinclair, C. & Foley, P. 2009) with the main goal of the campaign striving to eradicate the perception that a tan is healthy.

The DSOT campaign’s primary channel were 3 television ads displaying the mundane activities of young Australians both at the beach and playing footy. Following these advertisements were also posters, billboards, bus sides and bus shelters of the 3 individuals seen in the television ads. With alarming imagery of skin cells being attacked by melanoma and noteworthy slogans such as there’s nothing healthy about a tan and tanning is skin cells in trauma, the campaign successfully reached its target audience. Those aged 13-24 were more likely to recall these advertisements in comparison to the older respondents of the interviews and surveys conducted (Perez, D. 2015).

1/3 television advertisements of the DSOT campaign, featuring an Australian surfer and the risks of tanning even before you start to burn.

Across NSW, 100 interviews, along with online surveys, were conducted per week in the warmer months of November to March of 2007-11 to measure the effectiveness of the campaign. The most significant finding supported favourable change in adolescent attitudes towards desiring a suntan dropped from 60% at the commencement of the campaign to 45% by 2011 (Iannacone, M. R. & Green, A. 2014).

The particular aspect of the DSOT campaign showing Australians in typical everyday environments is a tool that can be both applied universally and to the tobacco control design. As the viewers are able to resonate deeply to what they are seeing, they are therefore prompted to make change in their lifestyle, as it has great potential to hit close to home.

Poster of the female individual featured across the DSOT campaign with a simple yet effective slogan. https://www.cancer.nsw.gov.au/getmedia/acb0b74a-cbed-41cf-b1e3-6cfaa8000b2a/e09-19770_skin_cells_in_trauma_poster.pdf

Significant changes to a more negative attitude towards tanning was a success in the continuous fight against the perception of a safe and healthy tan, highlighting the importance of the mass media campaign The Dark Side of Tanning.  

References

Author Unknown, 2015, ‘Recent research from cancer council highlighting findings in cancer prevention’, Education Business Weekly, 6 May. <https://search-proquest-com.ezproxy.lib.uts.edu.au/docview/1676418886/fulltext/656E06FB8B7F4F6CPQ/1?accountid=17095>

Cancer Institute NSW, 2018, Dark side of tanning campaign, NSW Government, viewed 20th November 2019, <https://www.cancer.nsw.gov.au/how-we-help/cancer-prevention/skin-cancer-prevention/campaigns/dark-side-of-tanning-campaign>

Cancer Institute NSW, 2009, Skin cells in trauma poster, NSW Government, viewed 21st November 2019, <https://www.cancer.nsw.gov.au/getmedia/acb0b74a-cbed-41cf-b1e3-6cfaa8000b2a/e09-19770_skin_cells_in_trauma_poster.pdf>

CancerNSW, 2010, There’s nothing healthy about a tan, viewed 20th November 2019, < https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EF40KBHFpn4&feature=emb_rel_pause>

Iannacone, M. R. & Green, A. 2014, ‘Towards skin cancer prevention and early detection’, Melanoma management, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 75-84. <https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6094686/>

Perez, D. 2015, ‘Exposure to ‘the dark side of tanning’ skin cancer prevention mass media campaign and its association with tanning attitudes in NSW, Australia’, Health Education Research, vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 336-346. <https://academic.oup.com/her/article/30/2/336/700997>

Sinclair, C. & Foley, P. 2009, ‘Skin cancer prevention in Australia’, British Journal of Dermatology, vol. 161, no. 1, pp. 116-123. <https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-2133.2009.09459.x>

Post B: Life Education’s ‘Healthy Harold’

By April Jiang

Yandaran State school, 2017, Yandaran State School students and Member for Burnett Stephen Bennett at the Life Education van, News Mail, viewed 22 November 2019,
<https://www.news-mail.com.au/news/yandaran-students-hang-out-with-healthy-harold/3202543/>

The empowerment of children brought by educational health and safety services acts as an effective tool for deeper understanding and engaging future decisions. The design of ‘Life Education’s’ Healthy Harold program, represents a successful platform that attracts the engagement of children in the decision-making toward their health and safety. The service reveals the effectiveness of empathy as a tool enabling immersion rather than confrontation as a basis for understanding.

Healthy Harold is a non-for-profit mobile service funded by the government that has been successfully operating for 40 years. More than 6 million young Australians have participated in the program since 1979, resulting Healthy Harold to become an Australian icon. The success of the program is reflected in the decades of service and in the outbursts toward the government’s decision of withdrawing funds in 2017. The power of social media was revealed in the immediate backlash of nostalgic Harold supporters, that forced the government to change their decision.

The giraffe puppet signifies friendly and comforting connotations for children, while heightening their attention, and ultimately achieving deeper understandings of health topics. The character of Harold is successfully manifested; being one that is funny, cute and memorable to the kids, enabling a reason for them to listen to him. It’s important to have “a platform like Life Education that reaches students on their level and helps educate them about the choices they will face” (Tran 2019). For children, there is an importance to the attitude brought by learning that ultimately saturates their attention and understanding. Overtime, although “children have changed in their knowledge and their responses to questions about drugs, their level of enthusiasm for learning is the same.” (Schilt 2017)

Similarly, in a paper written by Lynne Hall, she addresses the impact of affective interactions on the feelings and emotions of children, achieved through empathising with synthetic characters. Through this she discovers that “empathising with characters permits a deeper exploration and understanding of sensitive social and personal issues” (Hall 2005). This is evident in joy brought to children through interacting with Harold. By sharing subtle examples of his healthy lifestyle, it encourages children through their curiosity of the character.

In being a program that is designed very specifically for the appeal of children, it acts as a solution in providing information, understanding, skills and strategies, promoting safe decisions about their own health and well-being, in an empowering way. As founder of Life education, Ted Noffs states,

“Let’s not frighten our kids with scare tactics so they act in ways that we think are best for them. Let’s motivate and empower them so they can and will actively draw on their own knowledge to make safer and healthier choices.”

Tedd Noffs, Founder of Life Education Australia.

The elements of empowerment and encouragement become effective tools toward the development on their future growth and decisions. This allows children the opportunity to willingly be immersed in a learning experience as opposed to being frightened or confronted with threatening or displeasing campaigns unfit for their age.

In response to the Indonesian epidemic of tobacco usage, there is potential in similarly focusing on the immersion of an empathetic and educational experience. Since there is a high demand for cigarettes even for young children (Tjandra 2018), there seems to be a low awareness of health and safety in schools. By utilising the elements and tools identified in Life Education’s Healthy Harold, children can be empowered and encouraged to eliminate tobacco activity.

References

Post B: ‘Sehat Ka Batua’ – protect your money and keep away from breast cancer!

‘Sehat Ka Batua’ is an India health purse with the simple breast self-test steps inside to remind women to keep their breast health. ‘Sehat Ka Batua’ has been created because women in rural India like to put ‘batua’-traditional Indian wallets in their blouses to protect their money(Campaigns of the world 2018). This creative idea created by Grey India Mumbai and support by a car manufacturing company in India called Mahindra rise. This initiative is a unique Corporate Social Responsibility(CSR) initiative campaign for self-diagnosis of breast cancer(Spikes Asia 2019), which mean non- profit campaign. The health purse initiative campaign is an opportunity for India women to protect their breast health.

The ‘Sehat Ka Batua’ are regularly distribute during health awareness drives in Madkepada, Belwadi, kinipada, etc. This initiative increased local women’s perception of breast cancer prevention. Besides, according to the campaign of the world (2018), this initiative will be scaled up to reach more and more women in the media-dark parts of the country to reduce the incidence of breast cancer.

To some extent, this initiative is very successful because it does benefit many women in India. Effectively improve the prevention of breast cancer (Mahindra Rise 2018). And the campaign was also shortlisted at Cannes Lion for the change 2018 as a fact (Butteriss & Bradley 2019). But, under the local situation in India, most of the citizen in India have religion. According to the 2011 census, the largest part of religion are Hinduism and Islam, which occupy 79.80% and 14.23%, respectively. As Gold et al.(2019) and Schimmel et al.(2019), These two religions are a religion that promotes conservatism. So, for conservative women, it’s an unethical act to print a naked pattern on the wallet.

However, ‘Sehat Ka Batua’ health purse is still a great study case that has inspired us to provide creative ideas. Then, What I learnt from this case? In order to convey information to people’s minds, print the preventive measures on a wallet or other items and distribute to the people is a unique idea that can be a universal application. Besides, If we were designing a tobacco control campaign for Central Java via print the picture with the harmful influence of smoking such as black lung on the wallet or garment then distribute to the smoker as a non-profit project. It might lead to the number of smoker decrease. 

Words count: 402

References list: 

Butteriss, C., Bradley, J. 2019, The world’s best public health social media campaigns, Bang the table, viewed 19 November 2019, <https://www.bangthetable.com/blog/public-health-social-media-campaigns/&gt;.

Campaigns of the world 2018, The health purse(Sehat Ka Batua) – A unique CSR initiative for self- diagnosis of breast cancer, Campaigns of the world, viewed 20 November 2o19,<https://campaignsoftheworld.com/print/the-health-purse-sehat-ka-batua/&gt;.

Gold, G. A, Narayanan, V., Doniger, W., Basham, L. A., Smith, K. B. & Dimock, C. E. 2019,  Hinduism religion, Encyclopaedia britannica, viewed 20 November 2019, <https://www.britannica.com/topic/Hinduism/Karma-samsara-and-moksha&gt;. 

Spikes Asia 2019, Sehat Ka Batua – the Health purse, Ascential event, Europe, viewed 19 November 2019, <https://www2.spikes.asia/winners/2018/promo/entry.cfm?entryid=4845&award=101&order=6&direction=1&gt;.

Schimmel, A., Rahman, F., Mahdi, S. M. 2019,  ’Al-Islām’, Islam religion, Encyclopaedia britannica, viewed 20 November 2o19, <https://www.britannica.com/topic/Islam&gt;.

Mahindra Rise 2018, Mahindra’s Sehat Ka Batua | A Unique CSR Initiative for Self-Diagnosis of Breast Cancer in India, Video, YouTube, viewed 20 November 2019, <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zu_55piVrJU&gt;.


Part B:Public Toilet

According to Smith et al., (2000, Pg 1093-1103), the world health organization mentioned that there are still global well-being disaster. 673 million individuals remove waste openly, yet 2 billion people use potable water polluted with feces, and 4.2 billion people live without safe sanitation. In addition, insufficient sanitation causes 432,000 deaths a year from diarrhea, and production losses due to water value problems and sanitation infections account for 5 out of a hundred of GDP in many countries (Bartram & Cairncross, 2010).

Furthermore, the gap in sanitation abilities will enlarged while the global population, particularly in the evolving countries, is increasing fast. The United Nations assumes the world’s inhabitants will reach 8.6 billion by 2030 and 9.8 billion by 2050, with partial of the development coming from Africa and South Asia (Cohen, 2004, Pg 23-51). On the other hand, cities and regions with a municipal pipe networks, infrastructure is progressively getting old, and upkeep costs are gradually high. For example, the pipe network in most American municipalities has been in use for more than 100 years, with serious outflow and break complications, and the overall repair cost is up to 600 billion yuan.

Easy to note that toilet cleansing is not only a challenge in evolving countries, but also in urbanized countries. In recent years, most nations have recognized the significance of this problem and put on the table their own solutions, such as China’s “toilet revolution” and India’s “clean India mission” (Scott & Cavill, 2017). However, people find that the flushing of public toilets entails setting sewage pipes to attach to public pipe networks, which is difficult to spread to regions with small resident’s density, low per capita GDP hence complex territory. Brauman et al., (2016), mentioned that recently there is a serious scarcity of water resources in the world, hence the conflict between source and request is expanding day by day.


Therefore, to convey out toilet improvement, policy support and technical support in sanitation is needed for both water saving and environmental protection (Park & PARK, 2019). As diggings and incorporation with “him” industries, noble hygienic group raised on the magnitudes of environmental construction and user needs improvement to produce no water, no infrastructure, no emissions, no unusual smell, resource retrieval, intellectual, information-based resolutions – intellectual anhydrous environmental toilet, and to conquer the great technical breakthrough of 2019, no sewer toilet, one of the difficult problem. Creation of “world toilet day” has involved the world’s attention to the hygiene of the toilet surroundings, then the appearance of the Jiajing clean intellectual waterless environmental municipal toilet has redefined the public’s acceptance of public toilets, and stimulated the coming of the intelligent era of public toilets. It is an important force of toilet innovation in the world (Paterson & Dodge, 2016, Pg 207-226).

Reference:

Bartram, J. and Cairncross, S., 2010. Hygiene, sanitation, and water: forgotten foundations of health. PLoS medicine, 7(11), p.e1000367.

Brauman, K.A., Richter, B.D., Postel, S., Malsy, M. and Flörke, M., 2016. Water depletion: An improved metric for incorporating seasonal and dry-year water scarcity into water risk assessments. Elem Sci Anth, 4.

Cohen, B., 2004. Urban growth in developing countries: a review of current trends and a caution regarding existing forecasts. World development, 32(1), pp.23-51

Park, B.D. and PARK, C.H., Raymond Laboratories, 2019. Autophage activating resveratrol topical composition for skin improvement and treatment. U.S. Patent 10,179,095.

Paterson, M. and Dodge, M., 2016. Towards Touch-free Spaces: Sensors, Software and the

Automatic Production of Shared Public Toilets. In Touching Space, Placing Touch (pp. 207-226). Routledge.

Pepitone, J. (2019) Waterless toilet turns waste into clean water and power. CNNMoney.

Scott, P. and Cavill, S., 2017. Urination needs and practices away from home: where do women go?.

Smith, A.H., Lingas, E.O. and Rahman, M., 2000. Contamination of drinking-water by arsenic in Bangladesh: a public health emergency. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 78, pp.1093-1103.

Vaughn, J.M., McConville, J.T., Burgess, D., Peters, J.I., Johnston, K.P., Talbert, R.L. and Williams III, R.O., 2006. Single dose and multiple dose studies of itraconazole nanoparticles. European journal of pharmaceutics and biopharmaceutics, 63(2), pp.95-102.