Part B:Public Toilet

According to Smith et al., (2000, Pg 1093-1103), the world health organization mentioned that there are still global well-being disaster. 673 million individuals remove waste openly, yet 2 billion people use potable water polluted with feces, and 4.2 billion people live without safe sanitation. In addition, insufficient sanitation causes 432,000 deaths a year from diarrhea, and production losses due to water value problems and sanitation infections account for 5 out of a hundred of GDP in many countries (Bartram & Cairncross, 2010).

Furthermore, the gap in sanitation abilities will enlarged while the global population, particularly in the evolving countries, is increasing fast. The United Nations assumes the world’s inhabitants will reach 8.6 billion by 2030 and 9.8 billion by 2050, with partial of the development coming from Africa and South Asia (Cohen, 2004, Pg 23-51). On the other hand, cities and regions with a municipal pipe networks, infrastructure is progressively getting old, and upkeep costs are gradually high. For example, the pipe network in most American municipalities has been in use for more than 100 years, with serious outflow and break complications, and the overall repair cost is up to 600 billion yuan.

Easy to note that toilet cleansing is not only a challenge in evolving countries, but also in urbanized countries. In recent years, most nations have recognized the significance of this problem and put on the table their own solutions, such as China’s “toilet revolution” and India’s “clean India mission” (Scott & Cavill, 2017). However, people find that the flushing of public toilets entails setting sewage pipes to attach to public pipe networks, which is difficult to spread to regions with small resident’s density, low per capita GDP hence complex territory. Brauman et al., (2016), mentioned that recently there is a serious scarcity of water resources in the world, hence the conflict between source and request is expanding day by day.

Therefore, to convey out toilet improvement, policy support and technical support in sanitation is needed for both water saving and environmental protection (Park & PARK, 2019). As diggings and incorporation with “him” industries, noble hygienic group raised on the magnitudes of environmental construction and user needs improvement to produce no water, no infrastructure, no emissions, no unusual smell, resource retrieval, intellectual, information-based resolutions – intellectual anhydrous environmental toilet, and to conquer the great technical breakthrough of 2019, no sewer toilet, one of the difficult problem. Creation of “world toilet day” has involved the world’s attention to the hygiene of the toilet surroundings, then the appearance of the Jiajing clean intellectual waterless environmental municipal toilet has redefined the public’s acceptance of public toilets, and stimulated the coming of the intelligent era of public toilets. It is an important force of toilet innovation in the world (Paterson & Dodge, 2016, Pg 207-226).


Bartram, J. and Cairncross, S., 2010. Hygiene, sanitation, and water: forgotten foundations of health. PLoS medicine, 7(11), p.e1000367.

Brauman, K.A., Richter, B.D., Postel, S., Malsy, M. and Flörke, M., 2016. Water depletion: An improved metric for incorporating seasonal and dry-year water scarcity into water risk assessments. Elem Sci Anth, 4.

Cohen, B., 2004. Urban growth in developing countries: a review of current trends and a caution regarding existing forecasts. World development, 32(1), pp.23-51

Park, B.D. and PARK, C.H., Raymond Laboratories, 2019. Autophage activating resveratrol topical composition for skin improvement and treatment. U.S. Patent 10,179,095.

Paterson, M. and Dodge, M., 2016. Towards Touch-free Spaces: Sensors, Software and the

Automatic Production of Shared Public Toilets. In Touching Space, Placing Touch (pp. 207-226). Routledge.

Pepitone, J. (2019) Waterless toilet turns waste into clean water and power. CNNMoney.

Scott, P. and Cavill, S., 2017. Urination needs and practices away from home: where do women go?.

Smith, A.H., Lingas, E.O. and Rahman, M., 2000. Contamination of drinking-water by arsenic in Bangladesh: a public health emergency. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 78, pp.1093-1103.

Vaughn, J.M., McConville, J.T., Burgess, D., Peters, J.I., Johnston, K.P., Talbert, R.L. and Williams III, R.O., 2006. Single dose and multiple dose studies of itraconazole nanoparticles. European journal of pharmaceutics and biopharmaceutics, 63(2), pp.95-102.

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