POST C: The involvement of tobacco within the subcultures of Jogja

During my visit to Jogja, I had crossed paths with youths at the local events I had attended. Having already known that Indonesia is recognised as the fastest growing cigarette consumer worldwide (Joy de Beyer and Ayda A. Yurekli, 2000), I was interested in the hierarchal value that tobacco had within these environments. I decided to follow up on two individuals whom I had met at these events after to gain a more in-depth understanding of how smoking is affecting youths behind these culture as a whole.

The first individual, is 20-year-old Zulfian. Zulfian has been smoking since high school which started at the first punk show he had attended and blamed both the high prevalence of smoking at these shows and also the social stigma that smoking is associated with amongst men. He considers himself a regretful smoker as he is aware of the dangers of smoking and thus, hopes for a future where tobacco is more considered in education. Although Zulfian is amongst the 70.5% of men who are current smokers (WHO, 2017), he does not completely blame punk for his tobacco consumerism but wishes there were other alternatives other than smoking when attending these shows.

Photographs I took of smoke clouds from smokers and attendees smoking at the punk show, 2019.

My other candidate Za however, is a member of a sculpture making society that do not condone smoking at their events. Being a foreign student from Portugal, she was aware of the Indonesian tobacco industry prior to her move. Initially, this did not phase her as she was originally a social smoker but her views on smoking shifted after joining the sculpture society through her Jogja university. Before her involvement within the society, Z stated that she continued to smoke socially despite fellow classmates advising her that female smokers are frowned upon in Indonesian society. This is no surprise as a study in 2007 showed that only as little as 3% of women smoked (Mimi Nitchter, 2007). The events organised by her society promotes sustainability through showcasing works made from organic and natural resources. She felt the need to quit as a whole because smoking did not align with her society’s motif for advocating a greener society as it causes pollution.

Photo of Za’s works at a event her society had which promotes sculptures and fabrics made from reusable and organic materials.

Ultimately, although the relationship that tobacco has within these two groups differ, I understand that this could be bias perspectives as these opinions derive from two minority sub cultures in which are highly niche.

Joy de Beyer, Ayda A. Yurekli, 2006, ‘Curbing the Tobacco Epidemic in
Indonesia’, viewed 20 December 2019, <http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.552.952&rep=rep1&type=pdf>.

Mimi Nichter, S Padmawati, M Danardono, N Ng, Y Prabandari, Mark Nichter, 2009, tobaccocontrol, viewed 19 December 2019, <https://tobaccocontrol.bmj.com/content/18/2/98.short>.

Nawi Ng, L. Weinehall, A. Öhman, 2007, ‘‘If I don’t smoke, I’m not a real man’—Indonesian teenage boys’ views about smoking ‘ pages 794-804, academic, viewed 19 December 2019, <https://academic.oup.com/her/article/22/6/794/640787>.

World health organisation, 2019, ‘‘WHO report on the global tobacco epidemic, 2019 ‘, WHO, viewed 19 December 2019, <https://www.who.int/tobacco/surveillance/policy/country_profile/idn.pdf>

Post D: The norms and values relating to smoking in Javanese society

After China, Indonesia is the second-largest cigarette market in Asia. It is estimated that around 65 percent of Indonesian men are smokers. For Indonesian women, the figure is much lower – around 3 percent only (Indonesia Investment 2016). Most of the smokers start smoking from early age and got addicted eventually. An estimated of 58.1% of men adults aged over 15 years old were current smokers and as the age increased the prevalence of current smoking increased by almost 20% (Kristina et al. 2016). But people with higher level of education were less likely to currently smoke than a high school education people. Through a research conducted by a university student in Yogyakarta, non-smokers indicate that they have a higher quality of life compared to smokers, and in general showed a significant relationship with others (Perdana 2014).

The different percentage of men adults smokers and non-smokers over 15 years old in Yogyakarta and their reasons to smoke.

Smoking can lead to different diseases one of them is diabetes. In Yogyakarta Province, 65% of male diabetes patients smoked before being diagnosed (Padmawati et al. 2009). But despite knowing that they suffer from diabetes, 32% still smoked in the last 30 days, many diabetic patients continue to smoke despite the hazard of smoking on diabetes complications and mortality. Lack of education is one of the biggest factors of smokers in Indonesia. They think that if they don’t smoke, they are not a real man. Smoking is used as a metaphor for masculinity, potency and bravery. and by not smoking society will treat them as ‘abnormal’ (Ng, Weinehall, Öhman 2006). The norms and values relating to smoking in Javanese society has becoming the reasons for their smoking. In Java culture, cigarettes are often introduced to young boys during the traditional religious ritual of circumcision, which in this society occurs at the age of 10–12 years. 

Icha, 16, began smoking when she was 13 after a friend offered a cigarette to smoke together. Now, she smokes at least one pack of 12 cigarettes each day (CNN Health 2017).

Therefore, smoking among Java is associated with both traditional and modern culture, as well as religious practice. Smoking is deeply rooted and accepted by the society since it was introduced in Indonesia a long time ago, in the 16th century, making smokers hard to quit and even doesn’t have desire to quit. In Indonesia smoking and tobacco advertisements were signs of several positive connotations, such as ‘a steady life’, ‘pleasure’, ‘good taste’, ‘feel so rich’, ‘impressive’, ‘good appearance’ and ‘attractive’. Government need to act fast to establish a clear understanding to citizens especially young people to not think smoking as a privileged, however they should start treating it as something they shouldn’t try since young age.

Reference List:

Indonesia Investments 2016, ‘Tobacco & Cigarette Industry Indonesia’, Indonesia Investments, viewed 23 November 2019, <https://www.indonesia-investments.com/business/industries-sectors/tobacco/item6873&gt;.

Kristina, S. A., Endarti, D., Widayanti, A. W., Widiastuti, M. 2015, ‘Health-related Quality of Life Among Smokers in Yogyakarta‘, International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, viewed 23 November 2019, <http://impactfactor.org/PDF/IJPCR/8/IJPCR,Vol8,Issue1,Article18.pdf&gt;.

Ng, N., Weinehall, L., Öhman, A. 2006, ‘‘If I don’t smoke, I’m not a real man’—Indonesian teenage boys’ views about smoking’, Indonesia Investments, viewed 23 November 2019, <https://academic.oup.com/her/article/22/6/794/640787&gt;.

Padmawati, R. S., Ng, N., Prabandari, Y. S., Nichter, M. 2009, ‘Smoking among diabetes patients in Yogyakarta, Indonesia: cessation efforts are urgently needed’, Wiley Online Library, viewed 23 November 2019, <https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/j.1365-3156.2009.02241.x&gt;.

Perdana, S. S. 2014, ‘HUBUNGAN STATUS MEROKOK DENGAN KUALITAS HIDUP DI KOTA YOGYAKARTA’ (THE RELATIONSHIP OF SMOKERS WITH THEIR QUALITY OF LIFE IN YOGYAKARTA), Gadjah Mada University, viewed 23 November 2019, <http://etd.repository.ugm.ac.id/index.php?mod=penelitian_detail&sub=PenelitianDetail&act=view&typ=html&buku_id=72650&gt;.

Senthilingam, M. 2017, ‘Chain-smoking children: Indonesia’s ongoing tobacco epidemic’, CNN Health, viewed 23 November 2019, <https://edition.cnn.com/2017/08/30/health/chain-smoking-children-tobacco-indonesia/index.html&gt;.

Post A: Time for Change

With all the previous blog posts, it has been established that tobacco culture is strong and thriving in Indonesia. Designers are the driving force of success for all industries; creating a product, and marketing it to be desirable in the eyes of all. Indonesia is at the mercy of tobacco companies, with limited laws and regulations against advertising, product placement and loosely enforced age restrictions (Amul and Pangestu, 2018).

The most powerful way to enter the market barrier is by ‘consumer preference’ usually created by advertising and promotion (Shepherd, 1985). These companies have mastered a method to change the existing consumer preferences by conducting market research, designing sophisticated advertising and partaking in promotional activities, which in turn builds them publicity in the media. Companies like Gudang Garam and Djarum, claim they do not target youth, their advertising suggests otherwise through displaying an ideal lifestyle. Young men, dressed in smart suits, fawn over women as the voice over says, “I rule the world because I live Bold”, this is one example, that has lead young Indonesian boys to associate smoking with masculinity (Tjandra, 2018). Advertisements saturate the streets of Ambon, covering shop fronts, houses and billboards; a study found that in most places in Indonesia cigarettes are sold within 300m of schools, Lucky Strike even sells flavoured cigarettes and can be sold individually making it more affordable for children (Boseley, Collyns, Lamb and Dhillon, 2018).

LA Bold Commercial, 2018

This toxic but well-designed industry is similar to the alcoholic beverages in Australia. Unlike Indonesia the government has taken a stronger action to counteract it. Recognising that alcoholic advertising was reaching children, the Alcoholic Beverages Advertising Code was improved. This is as a reaction to an increase in non-traditional media, like on demand, parental complaints over ad placement and pressure from policy makers (Baker, 2017). Just as tobacco companies offer scholarships and sponsor community events; alcoholic companies in Australia sponsors sport, music and cultural events (Davey, 2017).

Designers need to be activists and radical shifts are needed to allow any form of activism to evolve” (Cintio, 2014).

With a range of stakeholders to please, designers are faced with a difficult challenge. The same market research and sophisticated tactics these companies utilise need to be adopted to subvert ‘consumer preference’ once again. A successful form of design activism is culture jamming, created in 1980 seeking to critique and subvert consumer culture (DeLaure and Fink, 2017). Similarly, to a worksheet from ‘the Healthy Lungs Project’, culture jamming should be more widely used for tobacco and alcohol advertising, showing and teaching people what is actually ‘cool’.

References

Amul, G. and Pangestu, T. 2018, Big Tobacco’s smoke and mirrors in ASEAN – Policy Forum, Policy Forum. viewed 29 January 2019, <https://www.policyforum.net/big-tobaccos-smoke-mirrors-asean/&gt;.

Baker, R. 2017, New rules on placement of alcohol ads loom large, Adnews. viewed 30 January 2019, <http://www.adnews.com.au/news/new-rules-on-placement-of-alcohol-ads-loom-large&gt;.

Boseley, S., Collyns, D., Lamb, K. and Dhillon, A. 2018, How children around the world are exposed to cigarette advertising, the Guardian. viewed 30 January 2019, <https://www.theguardian.com/world/2018/mar/09/how-children-around-the-world-are-exposed-to-cigarette-advertising&gt;.

Davey, M. 2017, Australia failing to stop alcohol ads reaching children, experts say, the Guardian. viewed 30 January 2019, <https://www.theguardian.com/australia-news/2017/oct/04/australia-ignoring-power-to-stop-alcohol-ads-reaching-children-experts-say&gt;.

DeLaure, M. and Fink, M. 2017, Culture jamming, New York University Press, New York.

Di Cintio, L. 2014, ‘Design Activism: Developing models, modes and methodologies of practice’, IDEA Journal, vol. 19, pp. 2-4.

LA Bold 2018, I Live Bold – Official TVC, viewed 29 January 2019, <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nQU_emK1WBA#action=share&gt;.

Shepherd P., 1985, Transnational corporations and the international cigarette industry. In: Newfarmer R, editor. Profits, progress and poverty. Case studies of international industries in Latin America. University of Notre Dame Press Notre Dame; Indiana.

Tjandra, N. 2018, ‘Disneyland for Big Tobacco’: how Indonesia’s lax smoking laws are helping next generation to get hooked, The Conversation. viewed 30 January 2019, <https://theconversation.com/disneyland-for-big-tobacco-how-indonesias-lax-smoking-laws-are-helping-next-generation-to-get-hooked-97489&gt;.

Post D: Indonesia’s Omnipresent Tobacco Culture

Traces of tobacco exist in every crevice of Ambon: used cigarette butts discarded on the sidewalk; empty cigarette packets floating in the river; Ambonese men smoking along the streets; and the smell of tobacco wafting through the air – all constant reminders of tobacco’s long history in Indonesia, rich with cultural symbolism and associations that existed before the advent of advertising (Reynolds 1999). Perhaps the most jarring, and arguably the most noticeable, aspect of tobacco culture is the plethora of tobacco advertising that densely saturates the Indonesian landscape.

Hand-drawn map of a walk in Ambon observing tobacco advertisements

On a short walk around Ambon – through quiet residential areas, the bustling market, and busy main roads – it is quickly evident that one can barely walk a few metres without seeing cigarette advertisements plastered on cloth banners, wall posters or big billboards (Nichter et al. 2009).

Photographs taken during a walk around Ambon, Indonesia

The frequency in which these tobacco advertisements appear is appalling, and Indonesia’s alarming smoking statistics can in part be attributed to the aggressive and innovative cigarette marketing prevalent in Ambon and other parts of Indonesia (Nichter et al. 2009). In the city of Yogyakarta in Central Java, tobacco billboards are displayed prominently, and most small kiosks and shops are covered with tobacco advertisements – which concurs with the advertising landscape in Ambon as well, as seen from the images above (Nichter et al. 2009). Similarly, in Denpasar, Bali, it was found that 7 out of 10 retailers displayed at least one banner promoting cigarette products (Astuti & Freeman 2018). The combination of persistent advertising and readily available and affordable cigarettes, among other social and cultural factors, has resulted in over 62% of Indonesian males smoking regularly, and boys as young as 10-years-old beginning to smoke (Achadi, Soerojo & Barber 2005).

Although the dense saturation of tobacco advertising in Indonesia is shocking to witness, the most worrying aspect, however, is how these advertisements are seamlessly integrated into the Indonesian landscape and tobacco becomes synonymous with Indonesian culture. As a foreigner visiting Indonesia for the first time and experiencing culture shock from being bombarded with tobacco advertising, the imagery and slogans have started to blend into the environment and I have begun to accept that tobacco culture is a norm in Indonesia. Considering my own firsthand experience, I could only imagine that the local Indonesians have also accepted tobacco as a normality and are not fazed by the saturation of tobacco advertisements – tobacco is so deeply engrained in the fabric of Indonesian culture that the advertisements seemingly belong in front of houses and kiosk shops. Indigenous cigarette advertising exploits and manipulates Indonesian cultural values to promote smoking, and when published en masse, can create a natural association between desirable lifestyle attributes and tobacco – cultivating beliefs and habits in favour of tobacco that has proven, and will continue, to be extremely difficult to alter (Reynolds 1999).


References:

Achadi, A., Soerojo, W. & Barber, S. 2005, ‘The relevance and prospects of advancing tobacco control in Indonesia’, Health Policy, vol. 72, no. 3, pp. 333-349.

Astuti, P. & Freeman, B. 2018, Protecting young Indonesian hearts from tobacco, The Conversation, viewed 20 January 2019, <https://theconversation.com/protecting-young-indonesian-hearts-from-tobacco-97554?fbclid=IwAR1cOwtSijNbCAgT4NrZf0Q2CxfiSWZC1lO3iQesk_umTe5AwkDb2hCNKSA&gt;.

Nichter, M., Padmawati, S., Danardono, M., Ng, N., Prabandari, Y. & Nichter, M. 2009, ‘Reading culture from tobacco advertisements in Indonesia’, Tobacco Control, vol. 18, pp. 98-107.

Reynolds, C. 1999, ‘Tobacco advertising in Indonesia: “the defining characteristics for success”’, Tobacco Control, vol. 8, pp. 85-88.

POST A: The Parameters Of Tobacco Promotion And Demotion, And The Ethics Of Change. 

Designers provide an ability to contribute positively, negatively or as an agent for change within any context. The parameters influencing them are society, culture and government. A thorough understanding of the stakeholders, product/service and end-user produces effective design solutions that in-turn influence the final outcomes success. Across the world, everything related to tobacco, wether it be the cigarette, packaging or paraphernalia, has been influenced by a designer and Indonesia is no exception to this, actually what they have achieved is rather exceptional.

It would be unjust to hand all the credit to designers. Whilst they play a key role, tobacco’s success to such a high degree is only made possible due to its deeply rooted interdependence in Indonesias socio-cultural, political and economic framework. In order to be an ethical designer, once must consider the determinants that influence tobaccos high prevalence. For Indonesian men, smoking is viewed as a signifier of masculinity (Nawi, 2007), whereas for women, they are a symbol of the new feminist movement (WHO 2012). If one wanted to promote change via methods of design activism, one would understand that to radically eradicate tobacco in Indonesia would be financially devastating to many, a futile solution. The tobacco industry is “a major source of tax revenue for the Indonesian Government” (World Bank, 2001). Although the costs of smoking attributable healthcare expenditures are forecast to cost Indonesia trillions by 2030 (Djutaharta, T. & Vijaya, S., 2003), Tobacco companies within Indonesia provide copious grants and opportunities that far outweigh this. This is evident with examples like Sampoerna University, a University named after a Phillip Morris’ kretek subsidiary cigarette brand. It is widely known that the university offers grants of up to $41,000 US for their top performing students, in addition to various entry-scholarships (The Jakarta Post, 2018).

6dc9bd943c4e65efd3d551f5c5d80886
Figure 1- A pack of flavoured Esse cigarettes. With minimal warnings, the bright and colourful packaging and the product itself, it is evidently designed to target young women.

Marlboro Filter Black indonesia Cigarettes front image
Figure 2 – A pack of Marlborough blacks, this brand has strong associations with masculinity.

These practices of promoting cigarettes is in stark contrast to Australia, with a large focus on anti-smoking promotions and campaigns of prevention. In 2006, plain-packaging and graphic warnings in Australia for instance, was a design method implemented for the purpose of the anti-tobacco initiative (The Department of Health, 2018). In Indonesia, the design tactics being used to promote cigarettes and tobacco are transparent.  Whereas in Australia design tactics are bing used to render cigarettes and tobacco as unappealing.

autralia-cigarette
Figure 3 – The evolution of anti-tobacco design tactics with regards to packaging within Australia.

References

Ng, N., Prabandari, Y., Padmawati, R., Okah, F., Haddock, C., Nichter, M., Nichter, M., Muramoto, M., Poston, W., Pyle, S., Mahardinata, N. and Lando, H. 2007, ‘Physician assessment of patient smoking in Indonesia: a public health priority’, Tobacco Control, vol 16, no 3, pp.190-196.

World Health Organization 2012, Tobacco Control in Indonesia, viewed 8 December 2018, <http://www.who.int/tobacco/about/partners/bloomberg/idn/en/&gt;.

Djutaharta, T. & Vijaya, S., 2003, ‘Research on tobacco in Indonesia: an annotated bibliography and review on tobacco use, health effects, economics and control efforts’, HNAP Discussion Paper: Economics of Tobacco Control, No. 10, pp. 1-66.

Indonesia-Investment 2018, Cigarette & Tobacco Industry Indonesia: Rising Pressures in 2018?, viewed 21 December 2018, <https://www.indonesia-investments.com/news/todays-headlines/cigarette-tobacco-industry-indonesia-rising-pressures-in-2018/item8471>

The Department of Health 2018, Smoking Prevalence Rates, viewed 21 December 2018<http://www.health.gov.au/internet/publications/publishing.nsf/Content/tobacco-control-toc~smoking-rates>

Figure 1, cigarettes online store, viewed 21 December 2018, <http://www.cigarettescigs.com> 

Figure 2, The Skeptical Cardiologist, viewed 21 December 2018, <https://theskepticalcardiologist.com/2017/10/08/why-doesnt-the-usa-have-graphic-warning-labels-on-cigarette-packs-like-the-netherlands/>

Figure 3, Clove cigarettes online, viewed 21 December 2018, <https://www.clovecigarettesonline.com/products/marlboro-cigarettes/marlboro-filter-black-clove-cigarettes-details&gt;

POST C: Pride, Prejudice And Tobaccos New Target

IMG_3923
Figure 1 – A local Surabayan woman walking through the Arab District.

In Indonesia, 67.4% of males and 4.5% of females partake in the habit of tobacco smoking (WHO, 2018). Despite it costing billions in healthcare and a growing awareness of the negative effects of both active and passive smoke inhalation, there appears to be little change or incentive in the populace quitting and the amount of new smokers taking up the habit. Reasons for this lack of change are best explored by analysing the public advertising and marketing of tobacco, religious beliefs, sociology and gender.

The act of smoking amongst Indonesian males is viewed as a signifier of masculinity and a way to increase their social status (Nawi, 2007), this has been the zeitgeist since its inception into their culture. Because of this long-term and widely held sentiment, the male market for tobacco in Indonesia has reached a saturation point. However, existing today is a rapidly increasing rate of smoking among Indonesian women (Ng et al. 2007). As Indonesia is experiencing a new wave of feminism, tobacco companies are targeting young women by promoting cigarettes as “torches of freedom” (WHO, 2012), marketing them to be synonymous with defiance and independence. For these women, their choice in wether or not to smoke poses a series of conflicts between personal desires as well as social and religious expectations (Pampel, 2006). The experiences of those desires, pressures and expectations are represented though the perspective of my interviewee Nyssa Putri.

Speaking with the twenty one year old, Surabayan, graphic design student — Nyssa expressed that smoking for women in Indonesia is considered by many as “lower-class and for sex-workers” (2018) with a particular emphasis on the word “taboo” (2018). She expanded on this phrase citing that education of the health risks related to tobacco (especially for females) is “taboo” (2018) and consequently “not talked about” (2018). Despite Nyssa being a well-educated female, she actively partakes in smoking. When asked why she simply smiled, showed off a few of her tattoos and stated “I am a modern Indonesian, I enjoy smoking to relieve the stress of my studies, a lot of us here (at ITS) do” (2018). Her eyes gleamed as she affectionately described how she and her friends like to build towers in the ashtray on the balcony of her home where they would study together.

Tobacco advertising in Indonesia is largely aspirational and subliminally engrained within sponsorships of many youth events. In conjunction to their tactics of marketing and associating themselves with desirable lifestyles, the branding of many new cigarettes target young women. This is achieved through more ‘feminine’ – flavoured cigarettes and colourful packaging. For our interview, Nyssa kindly brought a series ‘Esse’ cigarettes among them were her favourites ‘Honey Pop’ and ‘Berry Pop’. She laid them out on the table, describing the satisfaction of “breaking the ball” and “inhaling the flavour” (2018).

6dc9bd943c4e65efd3d551f5c5d80886
Figure 1 – A packet of ‘Berry Pop’ Esse cigarettes

Regardless of the conflicting messages within Indonesian culture toward women smoking, Nyssa seems to possess all the qualities that Tobacco companies would want their consumer to have. She is a “modern Indonesian” (2018), adopting a more ‘westernised’ lifestyle, is defiant toward the patriarchy and eager to practice her acts of defiance by being, as she says, “one of the boys” (2018). In summary, our conversation provided valuable insight into the perception of cigarettes and the identity it promotes for women. This proved valuable with regards to the conceptualisation of my teams solution, one that possessed a heavy focus on facilitating a positive identity with non-smoking.

References

World Health Organization 2018, Tobacco Control in Indonesia, viewed 8 December 2018 <http://www.who.int/tobacco/about/partners/bloomberg/idn/en/>.

Ng, N., Prabandari, Y., Padmawati, R., Okah, F., Haddock, C., Nichter, M., Nichter, M., Muramoto, M., Poston, W., Pyle, S., Mahardinata, N. and Lando, H. 2007, ‘Physician assessment of patient smoking in Indonesia: a public health priority’, Tobacco Control, vol 16, no 3, pp.190-196.

World Health Organization 2012, Tobacco Control in Indonesia, viewed 8 December 2018, <http://www.who.int/tobacco/about/partners/bloomberg/idn/en/>.

Fred C. Pampel 2006, Gobal Patterns and Determinants of Sex Differences in Smoking, viewed 21 December 2018 <https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0020715206070267>

Figure 1, Image captured by Maddison Rutter-Malley (2018).

Figure 2, Figure 1, cigarettes online store, viewed 21 December 2018, <http://www.cigarettescigs.com> 

Post B: Community enforcement proves more effective than government legislation in the Arab district of Surabaya.

Authored, photographed and illustrated by: Maddison Rutter-Malley

Conurbations of east Java merge into a conglomerate metropolis, thickly veiled with the yellow fumes emitted from car exhausts and tobacco leaves.

According to WHO, tobacco related illness is ranked among the top three in the world for both developed and under-developed countries, with a mortality rate predicted to reach 8.4 million in 2020 (Twombly, 2002). Tobacco inhalation is a leading cause of death with particular relation to non-communicable disease across the globe (H Van Minh, et al, 2006). Ranking as the 3rd highest smoker per capita in the world, it has been officially classed as an epidemic within Indonesia. With an approximation of 33% of the total population (67.4% of men and 4.5% of women) being smokers (World Health Organization, 2018).

Indonesia is a vast archipelago of contrasting cultures. Many of those cultures, especially within big cities like Surabaya, are densely situated. Regardless of opposing religious and lifestyle views, many Indonesians employ tobacco use as an intrinsic part of their day-to-day lives. Regardless that there have been a set of laws implemented into the creation of ‘safe-zones’ for smoke inhalation, these rules are often ignored. A study of the health intervention strategies of selected schools found that in Indonesia “even though schools are supposed to be smoke free areas, the informants often see their male teachers smoking” (Tahlil et al., 2013).

Something I noticed when walking through the streets of the Arab district was the ability for the community to band together and effectively administer a set of rules for selected areas. With particular focus on alleys where young children would reside. Signs posted stated “dilarang menaiki kendaraan di dalam kampung”, which translates to “riding a vehicle in the village is prohibited”.

In contrast to the legislative efforts administered by the local government to implement safe zones, these locally controlled areas proved to be successful with regards to public compliance. With an emphasis on limiting the flow of vehicles within the alleys, most local cafes and transport junctions were situated on the surrounding main strips. These were high activity zones for smoking – due to the prevalence of Warkop’s and transport workers within that area.

Smoking across Indonesian society is embedded heavily within their social dynamics as it connotes a sense of  camaraderie, particularly among men. With a statistic of 85% of transport workers being smokers, (Rita. K, 2014) it is not surprising that these high prevalence zones correlated with the male dominated hang-outs and transport junctions. Whereas in the restricted vehicle zones leading to the Bazaar and Sunan Ampel Mosque and Tomb, there was vastly lower prevalence of smoking activity.

The map I have generated outlines the high and low smoking zones, as well as the operations within each area.

D_Map

————————————————————————————————————————

1) Twombly, R. (2002). World Health Organization Takes on ‘Tobacco Epidemic’. Cancer Spectrum Knowledge Environment, 94(9), pp.644-646.

2) World Health Organization. (2018). Tobacco control in Indonesia. [online] Available at: http://www.who.int/tobacco/about/partners/bloomberg/idn/en/ [Accessed 4 Dec. 2018].

3) H Van Minh, N Ng, S Wall, H Stenlund, R Bonita, L Weinehall, M Hakimi, P Byass (2006). Smoking Epidemics And Socio-Economic Predictors Of Regular Use And Cessation: Findings From WHO STEPS Risk Factor Surveys In Vietnam And Indonesia. The Internet Journal of Epidemiology, 3(1).

4) Tahlil, T., Woodman, R., Coveney, J. and Ward, P. (2013). The impact of education programs on smoking prevention: a randomized controlled trial among 11 to 14 year olds in Aceh, Indonesia. BMC Public Health, 13 (1).

5) Kirana, Rita and Dewi, Vonny Kresna and Barkinah, Tut and B., Isnaniah, ‘Smoking Behavior and Attitude Towards Cigarette Warning Labels Among Informal Workers in Surabaya City – East Java, Indonesia (April 2, 2014) <https://ssrn.com/abstract=2419434 or hp://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2419434> [Accessed 6 Dec. 2018].