Blog B: International Case Study of Design for Tobacco Control

Smoking is the leading cause for preventable diseases and staggering mortality rates worldwide (Manuel C. Pietsche et.al, 2018) while many countries are attempting to reduce the mortality rate, Indonesia is one of the few countries that has the highest number of smokers globally. With a population of around 260 million at least 214,000 people die each year, 19% of which are males and 7% are females (tobaccofreekids.org, 2017) 

Looking at how some organisations are trying to combat these issues in other countries the question is: are these initiatives proving successful? According to G.T Fong “It is not possible to conduct randomised experimental studies to evaluate the effects of tobacco control policies because governments, not researchers, control policy implementation”. A well known example in Australia is the cigarette packaging featuring graphic images of what may result from prolonged tobacco use which came into place thanks to the Department of Health by December 2012. However a recent study released by The Cancer Council of Victoria found that plain packaging in Australia has failed. “Smoking rates in Australia have increased by 21,000 smokers from 2013 (one year after the new cigarette packaging was implemented) to 2016. This is marked the first time in decades that there hasn’t been a reduction in smoking rates.”(Sarah Ray, 2018)

Probing into recent initiatives, tobaccofreekids.org based in the U.S aims to prevent young adults from early addiction to tobacco, cigarette smoking usually begins at an early age especially in lower economic countries and regions (Saadiyah Rao, 2014). One of many of their initiatives is ‘Kick Butts Day’ dedicated to encourage youths to “stand out, speak up and seize control” (tobaccofreekids.org).  KBD now organises events globally and hopes to reach more countries, the campaign aims to achieve a smoke-free future with the following:

fig.1 KBD logo

  • Promote policies reducing tobacco use and exposure to secondhand smoke, higher tobacco taxes, smoke-free laws enforced in public spaces, funded tobacco prevention programs.
  • Expose and counter tobacco industry efforts to market to children and mislead the public.
  • Uniting organisations to join the fight against tobacco.
  • Empower a tobacco-free generation by fostering youth leadership and activism.
  • Inform the public, policy makers and the media about tobacco’s devastating consequences and the effectiveness of the policies we support.

KBD offers wide a range of activities aimed at students from elementary school to college, extensive support and resources that would have a prolonged effect for children and young adults in the future. Rather than aiming their campaigns at adult smokers they are educating students before they feel the pressure of having to smoke. 

References

The conceptual framework of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Policy Evaluation Project

 G.T Fong, K.M Cummings, R Borland, G Hastings, A Hyland, G.A Giovino, D Hammond, M.E Thompson 

https://tobaccocontrol.bmj.com/content/tobaccocontrol/15/suppl_3/iii3.full.pdf

Next-generation tobacco and nicotine products: Substantiating harm reduction and supporting tobacco regulatory science 

Manuel C Peitsch, Riccardo Polosa, Christopher Proctor, Thord Hassler, Marianna Gaca, Erin Hill, Julia Hoeng, and 

A Wallace Hayes 

https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/2397847318773701

Anti-smoking initiatives and current smoking among 19,643 adolescents in South Asia: findings from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey
Saadiyah Rao, Syeda Kanwal Aslam, Sidra Zaheer and Kashif Shafique

https://harmreductionjournal.biomedcentral.com/track/pdf/10.1186/1477-7517-11-8

Other

The Department of Health, Tobacco: Health Warnings, April 2018

<http://www.health.gov.au/internet/main/publishing.nsf/Content/tobacco-warn> Viewed 8/1/19

The Toll of Tobacco In Indonesia

<https://www.tobaccofreekids.org/problem/toll-global/asia/indonesia> Viewed 7/1/19

Plain Packaging a graphic study in Failure, Spectator Australia, Sarah Ray, July 2018

<https://www.spectator.com.au/2018/07/plain-packaging-a-graphic-study-in-failure/> Viewed 9/1/19

Kick Butts Day, For Youth Advocates

<https://www.kickbuttsday.org/for-youth-advocates/advocacy_initiatives/> Viewed 8/1/19

fig 1. Kick Butts Day Logo, Illustrator Unknown

<https://www.kickbuttsday.org/resources/logos_templates/>

Post A: Banjarmasin’s Taksi Kuning

‘As different groups give different meanings to space, it becomes a multilayered place, reflecting the way places are socially constructed’ – (Knox, 1995). Design change by context and space will begin to form its own meaning and notions; creating its own signature style. The original concept and idea of a design from the designer can often be interchangeable. However, it does not mean the product itself has been misused incorrectly but merely given a new meaning and purpose. An example of this would be Banjarmasin’s public transport ‘Taksi Kuning’ (Yellow Taxi) design and its service.

Taksi Kuning are usually yellow coloured mini-bus with altered back seats to accommodate people travelling short distances. This public transport from the 80s is quite popular transport choice and is cheap allowing for regular use by the locals to travel around the city. Instead of the usual car seats, the back has been replaced with two long seats facing each other. Taksi Kuning does not have seatbelts. The door of Taksi Kuning are always open for easy access. The setup of Taksi Kuning itself reflects the idea of short distance travel due to the unique design of the car.  During the Banjarmasin trip, we used this service to travel from our hotel to Menara Pandang.

taksi kuning.jpg(banjarmasinpost 2017)

(Tjeng 2018)

In comparison to Australia, mini buses are usually used as hired transportation services such as car rentals to travel long distances or private use. The difference in service provided between Australian and Indonesian mini buses and its inner vehicular layout reflects on the context of these buses themselves.

sad.PNG

(Altoff 2017)

According to the Stanford University of Physical Activity Research, Indonesia was lacking physical activity, especially in the walking department with 3513 steps per day (Althoff et al). This could be a direct result of the existence of many forms of public transport such as Taksi Kuning on the streets of Indonesia which prevents Indonesians to walk and prefer to use public transport that enables them to arrive to their desired location conveniently. Hairulsyah 2013 mentioned ‘The sustainability of urban public transportation which has involved public participation, as it has been mentioned above, such as economic, social, and environmental sustainability, should be maintained. Even though Taksi Kuning has their own travel route, it can freely stop at any time. Hence not a very sustainable transport for the public.

Due to these findings, context do change the meaning of a design. In this case, Banjarmasin’s public transport system and service is comparatively different than Australia’s due to the differing culture and custom of the people living in each country.

 

References:

Althoff, T., Sosič R., Hicks L, J., King, A. C.,  Delp, S, L., Leskovec, J. 2017, ‘Large-scale Physical activity data reveal worldwide activity inequality.’, Nature, vol. 547

Hairulsyah 2013, ‘The Influence of Public Participation on Sustainable Transportation and Regional Development in Medan’, The Indonesian Journal of Geography, vol. 45, no. 1

Madanipour, A. 1999, ‘Why are the design and development of public spaces significant for cities?’, Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design 1999, vol. 26.

Kalimantanpost.com 2017, Taksi Kuning terus tergerus: Puluhan Trayek Tak Lagi Beroperasi, kalimantanpost, viewed on 6 February 2018, < http://www.kalimantanpost.com/taksi-kuning-terus-tergerus-puluhan-trayek-tak-lagi-beroperasi/&gt;

Post D: Culture Shock!

By Annie Su

Have you ever been to a country and think to yourself like it’s a whole new world? The way that locals eat, live and behave is just so different to those of your own. When traveling to whole new country where everything is different, most of us experience culture shock. We find many things strange and are curious to find out more and learn. During our trip to Jogja, we experienced many exciting things and events. Even before my trip, I was warned and given advises. I don’t think I’ll be able to pinpoint just one to two, so here are a few culture shocks that I’ve experienced and maybe you have too.

First of all was Jam Karet, in English meaning rubber time. Indonesians are very flexible and relaxed  in time. Events could end up being cancelled or people being late and you wouldn’t even be notified until the time has come. We had to work our way around this, as timing and planning could all be different and changed along the day. Everything that we know back at home may be entirely different here, so we had to work with our new environment and learn.

The next was alcohol in Indonesia. Drug laws are very strict in Indonesia and there are severe penalties to those who do not obey. Alcohol was not easily accessed, as most people did not consume any alcohol, where as on the other hand, smoking is almost considered a norm in Indonesia. The smoking culture is similar the the drinking culture back in Sydney. A beer or two a day for us is no big deal and same goes for them for smoking cigarettes. Most restaurants only offered a small range of beer selections if one wanted to consume alcohol.

Dress-code in Indonesia is quite reserved and modest, especially to women. Women avoid wearing short skirts, shorts, anything too tight and anything that shoes too much chest or shoulders. Since coming from a very heavy Muslim background, women are mostly covered with hijabs. To be respectful of that, we dressed accordingly and appropriately.

There are much more other events that we came across that was a culture shock to us. From the undrinkable water to the local and citizen prices. But these are just a few that most of us have experienced. It was an amazing experience, as we learnt how the locals are and immersed ourselves in their culture and society.

 

 

Reference:

Expat Arrivals 2017, Culture Shock in Indonesia, viewed 16 February 2017, <http://www.expatarrivals.com/indonesia/culture-shock-in-indonesia&gt;

Lonely Planet 2017, Female Dress Code in Indonesia?, viewed 16 February 2017, <https://www.lonelyplanet.com/thorntree/forums/asia-south-east-asia-islands-peninsula/indonesia/female-dress-code-in-indonesia&gt;

Countries and their Culture 2017, Culture of Indonesia, viewed 16 February 2017, <http://www.everyculture.com/Ge-It/Indonesia.html&gt;

Post C: May 1998

By Annie Su

May 1998, Riots of Indonesia also know as The 1998 Tragedy, was an incident where there was mass violence against racial issues across Indonesia. My boyfriend, Reinardus Aditya, was Indonesian born Indonesian-Chinese who grew up in Sydney, Australia. That year, him and his family experienced this tragedy which changed their lives from then on. Here is his story.

Jakarta_riot_14_May_1998.jpegRiots in Indonesia 1.1

It happened when they were driving from their Grandpa’s place back to theirs, from Jalan Kopo to Jalan Sukakarya, Bandung. He was in the car with his mum, dad and older sister when suddenly their car was getting mobbed by outsiders. Locking themselves in, they were traumatized, as the kids did not understand what was happening and could not grasp the situation. As the crowd cleared, they drove back home with multiple dents in their car.

Incidents started happening here and there. To an 8 year old, it was frightening and confusing as to why these people are trying to hurt his family. But as he grew older, he came to learn the politics and what happened that year. His father was once chased by an ex-worker with a machete. The reasons to all this was all because they were Indonesian-Chinese. The main victim targets of the violence were ethnic Chinese. His father liquidated all his assess in order to leave the country and start their live elsewhere, where he is able to protect his family. By the end of 1998, his family was safe in Sydney, Australia.

Indonesian-Chinese became victims of the local gangstas who also threatened the community with violence. Rumors and stories of sexual violence with perpetrators shouting anti-Chinese slogans and other abusive quotes shocked the Indonesians. The incident became a state-sponsored violence, making the government taking some measures and actions.

indonesia-unrest_1a.jpeg                                                             Riots in Indonesia 1.2

As news of Indonesian-Chinese were being attacked, it reached the international ethnic Chinese community. Weeks later, the aftermath of this tragedy still left locals fearing for their life and safety. Many businesses, banks and public places remained closed in populated and major cities in Indonesia. The riots started all because of economic problems, such as food shortage and mass unemployment. It has left quite a mark in history, as it was estimated that more than one thousand people died during the riots, 168 cases of rape that was reported and more than 3.1 trillion Rupiah of material that was damaged. Even up to 2010, legal procedures with the riots are still not completed. Even up until this day, he still feels the discrimination against Indonesian-Chinese, since they are the minority and what history has led to.

References:

CNN 1998, Hundreds dead from Indonesian unrest, viewed 16 February 2017, <http://edition.cnn.com/WORLD/asiapcf/9805/16/indonesia.update/&gt;

Panggabean, S. 2010, Smith, B. 2010, ‘Explaining Anti-Chinese Riots in Late 20th Century Indonesia’, Essay, Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta, Indonesia, University of Florida, USA

Bloomberg 2017, Indonesia: The Plight Of The Ethnic Chinese, viewed 16 February 2017, <https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/1998-08-02/indonesia-the-plight-of-the-ethnic-chinese-intl-edition&gt;

ABC 2017, viewed 16 February 2017, <http://www.abc.net.au/ra/img/news/base/feature/suharto_riots_rtr_feature.jpg?&gt;

Wikimedia 2017, viewed 16 February 2017, <https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/22/Jakarta_riot_14_May_1998.jpg&gt;

Michigan State University, viewed 16 February 2017, <https://msu.edu/course/iss/325/stein/indonesia-unrest_1a.jpg&gt;

Post B: Fresh air for Sale

By Annie Su

It all started when I thought it was a joke. But as I looked more into it, the reality of this service turned out to be real. Companies or individuals in China are using a design initiative to deal with their public health issue, air pollution. These businesses are literally selling cans or bags of fresh oxygen.

article-2592762-1CB0752000000578-209_634x352.jpeg   Fresh Air Stations

In response to the growing concern, people are selling fresh clean oxygen, in hoping that they’ll help with the situation. China is one of the most polluted countries in the world, so I am not surprised of the increasing data indicating the immense growth and air pollution that they deal with.

Many locations in China are offering city dwellers a breath of fresh air. Fresh air stations are set up, where visitors are handed over oxygen masks to breath in fresh Laojun Mountain air, which is located in Luanchuan where it is 80% greenery in Henan province. The air bags are meant to address the dangerous smog levels, where only just 3 pf 74 cities in China have met the official air quality standards according to the Ministry of Environmental Protection in China. It is shocking that it has led to this environmental crisis and how they just let it happen.

chinaair_3_custom-e07ccc8b8d542752eaf1c13a611244d3d602bccb-s1500-c85.jpegChen Guangbiao handing out canned fresh air.

Having the same response, Chinese entrepreneur Chen Guangbiao who made a fortune selling cans of fresh air at 5 yuan (80 cents) each. His estimated net worth is $740 million, even though he claims he isn’t trying to make profit from all this. He encourages people the inhale the compressed air cans.

Vitality Air started as a gag gift, but who knew that bags of air was in such high demand. It all started when a couple of Canadians sold a bottle of air from the Rocky Mountains on eBay. Vitality Air officially launched back in 2014, where their main consumers were from North America, India and Middle East. Ending with China as their biggest buyer and market.

With a high risk of public health crisis, the Chinese government are taking actions, either you believe it is unethical or creative, but things are happening. Companies and individuals are now dealing with the public health issue and hoping to somehow to help with the air pollution in populated areas in Asia. But is it too late? What has it become of China? And why did it have to come to this stage where there is a need to drag around oxygen tanks?

References:

Daily Mail 2014, China’s latedt fad is breath of fresh air: Oxygen stations set up across the country so city dwellers can escape smog, UK, viewed 16 February 2017, <http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2592762/Chinas-latest-fad-breath-fresh-air-Oxygen-stations-set-country-city-dwellers-escape-smog.html&gt;

Daily Mail 2014, Central European News Images, viewed 16 February 2017, <http://i.dailymail.co.uk/i/pix/2014/03/30/article-2592762-1CB0750000000578-488_634x359.jpg&gt;

Daily Mail 2014, Central European News Images, viewed 16 February 2017, <http://i.dailymail.co.uk/i/pix/2014/03/30/article-2592762-1CB0752000000578-209_634x352.jpg&gt;

Science Alert 2015, People in China are Buying Cans of Fresh Air from Canada, viewed 17 February 2017, <http://www.sciencealert.com/people-in-china-are-buying-cans-of-fresh-air-from-canada&gt;

NPR 2017, In China, A Breath Of Fresh Air (In A Can), viewed 17 February 2017, <http://www.npr.org/sections/thetwo-way/2013/02/03/170891295/in-china-a-breath-of-fresh-air-in-a-can&gt;

NPR 2017, Mark Wong/EPA /LANDOV , viewed 17 February 2017, <http://media.npr.org/assets/img/2013/02/01/chinaair_3_custom-e07ccc8b8d542752eaf1c13a611244d3d602bccb-s1500-c85.jpg&gt;

POST A: Designers pushing boundaries

By Annie Su

Design is shaped and created in many ways by culture and the society. Many can be controversial, especially those that affect religion. Fashion designer Anniesa Hasibuan from Jakarta, Indonesia showcased her collection “D’Jarkarta” at the New York Fashion Week Fashion Show just 5 months ago. It drew global attention as it was the first time all the models on the runway wore the headscarf, also known as hijabs.

5346fa2ce73319b4c61449d1a88c0e2b.jpegAnniesa Hasibuan

The 30 year old designer was praised from fashion critics from all over the world, but couldn’t escape the conservative critics from her hometown, as they feel it wasn’t modest enough. Hasibuan mentioned that when she was in New York, people were more interested and focused on the artistic side rather than the religious side. I see how that could be controversial, as it is daring and experimental and may not seem modest to those who chose to wear the hijabs.

Pieces from Hasibuan’s collection, D’Jakarta.

Her collection features cross-cultural design inspired pieces. Showcasing a modern take on the Japanese kimono with colourful tunics, beautiful lacy evening gowns, all including the hijab. The design pieces were bedazzled by with precious gems, sequins and hand-stitched embroidery, where this is only seen worn by wealthy women back in Indonesia. It became a great deal for the Indonesian Muslim society, as they feel it was not represented properly and the audience did not focus on the religious aspect. When her collection was uploaded through social media platforms, people pointed out that it wasn’t even worn correctly, as it should be covering the chest and neck because it is God’s order.

3ff03404ba0d49c6996abee2891bd533_18.jpegDetailed Hijab design by Anniesa Hasibuan.

The Islamic fashion is an Islamic practice, in which only specific body parts are allowed to be present. The global growth has encouraged Muslims to be both covered and comfortable but as well as fashionable, modest and beautiful. Hasibuan tried to push boundaries in her design and brought up the social, cultural as well as political sides of Islamic fashion.

I admire her a lot for being so brave by pushing into some very controversial and sensitive boundaries. She was very inspired by her love for Indonesia’s culture. Her response was much better abroad compared back to her hometown. Even so, she is determined to continue her pathway and face the world. Fashion is open stage, where you are not to be discriminated. She believes everyone is given equal opportunity to show their passion and talents.

“Difference is not something to be afraid of – it’s something you should embrace.” – Anniesa Hasibuan

 

 

References:

Al Jazeera Media Network 2017, Indonesia fashion designer Anniesa Hasibuan goes global, Media Network, viewed 16th February 2017, <http://www.aljazeera.com/news/2016/10/indonesia-fashion-designer-anniesa-hasibuan-global-161028151311430.html&gt;.

Rodulfo, K. 2017, ‘Muslim Designer Anniesa Hasibuan had an All-Immigrant cast of models at NYFW’, Elle, 15 February, viewed 16 February 2017, <http://www.elle.com/fashion/news/a43064/anniesa-hasibuan-fall-2017-show-immigrant-models/&gt;.

Anniesa Hasibuan, Lookbook, viewed 16 February 2017, <http://anniesahasibuan.com/lookbook/djakarta&gt;.

Al Jazeera Media Network, Frazer Harrison/Getty Images, viewed 16 February, <http://www.aljazeera.com/mritems/imagecache/mbdxxlarge/mritems/Images/2016/10/28/d799274345e14dc3b5ef63fa45d9d9c1_18.jpg&gt;.

Al Jazeera Media Network, Frazer Harrison/Getty Images, viewed 16 February, <http://www.aljazeera.com/mritems/Images/2016/10/28/3ff03404ba0d49c6996abee2891bd533_18.jpg&gt;.

 

Post C: Indo Living

Jakarta is a “busy, heavily dense city that continually makes you worry” as my friend Lydia Lim describes her city. Having grown up in Jakarta and currently live there, her view of her city has change after living in Sydney and having a family. She moved to Sydney to continue her university studies in Interior Design as well as working after graduating. After 6 years in Sydney she followed her husband back to Jakarta to take over his father’s business.

DCIM100GOPROGOPR1778.
Jakarta at Night [1]
Lydia is the only person I know who has continually spoken her dislike about living in Jakarta, she states “When you have a kid here you’re constantly worrying about everything that you shouldn’t, like going to the doctors, day care, mall, and banks, you don’t know what their agenda is and that’s scary”. While people may see living in Indonesia can be like royalty with your maids, drivers, and nannies, it is easy to settle in, though it can also show a distinct separation between relationships within the family. The importance of earning money and creating a safety net is what drives the people today, “it is difficult to separate work and family when needed, whereas in Sydney you the weekend is the rest days and you know that work will be put aside on those days” as Lydia explains how her husband’s work constantly interferes with rest days. The culture within Indonesia seem to be changing with current generations, the need to focus on work and business outweigh family and personal relationships. Although the need to provide for families play an important role in many of these situations, with opportunities that allow the wife to be a stay at home also in consideration.

Lydia gave insight to the changing notions within Indonesia’s culture, the aspects of distant relationship in family and safety in the city are what drives her dislike of Jakarta, constantly comparing to Sydney. Whilst there are positives in having her family like her parents and mother in law see her child grow up, there is a continual unsettling feeling living in Jakarta. The endless worry of her child growing up in Indonesia and the somewhat limited possibilities that she is open to, like great education, good doctors, government benefits, the list is never-ending. She said “living with peace of mind is what I want, and I don’t have that here in Jakarta like I did in Sydney”. She hopes to return to Sydney soon.

Lydia L. interviewed by Rachel Hansen on 12th February 2017 in Jakarta, Indonesia.

Reference:
Sites:
Countries and Their Cultures 2009, Indonesia, viewed on 13th February 2017, <http://www.everyculture.com/Ge-It/Indonesia.html>

Expat Arrivals 2017, Moving to Indonesia, viewed on the 14th February 2017, <http://www.expatarrivals.com/indonesia/moving-to-indonesia>

Image
[1] Rachel Hansen 2015.