POST A: The Parameters Of Tobacco Promotion And Demotion, And The Ethics Of Change. 

Designers provide an ability to contribute positively, negatively or as an agent for change within any context. The parameters influencing them are society, culture and government. A thorough understanding of the stakeholders, product/service and end-user produces effective design solutions that in-turn influence the final outcomes success. Across the world, everything related to tobacco, wether it be the cigarette, packaging or paraphernalia, has been influenced by a designer and Indonesia is no exception to this, actually what they have achieved is rather exceptional.

It would be unjust to hand all the credit to designers. Whilst they play a key role, tobacco’s success to such a high degree is only made possible due to its deeply rooted interdependence in Indonesias socio-cultural, political and economic framework. In order to be an ethical designer, once must consider the determinants that influence tobaccos high prevalence. For Indonesian men, smoking is viewed as a signifier of masculinity (Nawi, 2007), whereas for women, they are a symbol of the new feminist movement (WHO 2012). If one wanted to promote change via methods of design activism, one would understand that to radically eradicate tobacco in Indonesia would be financially devastating to many, a futile solution. The tobacco industry is “a major source of tax revenue for the Indonesian Government” (World Bank, 2001). Although the costs of smoking attributable healthcare expenditures are forecast to cost Indonesia trillions by 2030 (Djutaharta, T. & Vijaya, S., 2003), Tobacco companies within Indonesia provide copious grants and opportunities that far outweigh this. This is evident with examples like Sampoerna University, a University named after a Phillip Morris’ kretek subsidiary cigarette brand. It is widely known that the university offers grants of up to $41,000 US for their top performing students, in addition to various entry-scholarships (The Jakarta Post, 2018).

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Figure 1- A pack of flavoured Esse cigarettes. With minimal warnings, the bright and colourful packaging and the product itself, it is evidently designed to target young women.
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Figure 2 – A pack of Marlborough blacks, this brand has strong associations with masculinity.

These practices of promoting cigarettes is in stark contrast to Australia, with a large focus on anti-smoking promotions and campaigns of prevention. In 2006, plain-packaging and graphic warnings in Australia for instance, was a design method implemented for the purpose of the anti-tobacco initiative (The Department of Health, 2018). In Indonesia, the design tactics being used to promote cigarettes and tobacco are transparent.  Whereas in Australia design tactics are bing used to render cigarettes and tobacco as unappealing.

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Figure 3 – The evolution of anti-tobacco design tactics with regards to packaging within Australia.

References

Ng, N., Prabandari, Y., Padmawati, R., Okah, F., Haddock, C., Nichter, M., Nichter, M., Muramoto, M., Poston, W., Pyle, S., Mahardinata, N. and Lando, H. 2007, ‘Physician assessment of patient smoking in Indonesia: a public health priority’, Tobacco Control, vol 16, no 3, pp.190-196.

World Health Organization 2012, Tobacco Control in Indonesia, viewed 8 December 2018, <http://www.who.int/tobacco/about/partners/bloomberg/idn/en/&gt;.

Djutaharta, T. & Vijaya, S., 2003, ‘Research on tobacco in Indonesia: an annotated bibliography and review on tobacco use, health effects, economics and control efforts’, HNAP Discussion Paper: Economics of Tobacco Control, No. 10, pp. 1-66.

Indonesia-Investment 2018, Cigarette & Tobacco Industry Indonesia: Rising Pressures in 2018?, viewed 21 December 2018, <https://www.indonesia-investments.com/news/todays-headlines/cigarette-tobacco-industry-indonesia-rising-pressures-in-2018/item8471>

The Department of Health 2018, Smoking Prevalence Rates, viewed 21 December 2018<http://www.health.gov.au/internet/publications/publishing.nsf/Content/tobacco-control-toc~smoking-rates>

Figure 1, cigarettes online store, viewed 21 December 2018, <http://www.cigarettescigs.com> 

Figure 2, The Skeptical Cardiologist, viewed 21 December 2018, <https://theskepticalcardiologist.com/2017/10/08/why-doesnt-the-usa-have-graphic-warning-labels-on-cigarette-packs-like-the-netherlands/>

Figure 3, Clove cigarettes online, viewed 21 December 2018, <https://www.clovecigarettesonline.com/products/marlboro-cigarettes/marlboro-filter-black-clove-cigarettes-details&gt;

Project: Pilihan Kita

Indonesia is one of the biggest consumers of tobacco in the world with 70% of their population being smokers (WHO, 2018). Aggressive marketing tactics and misinformation contribute to a misinformed understanding of the health risks associated with smoking. This is in conjunction with an endearing view of tobacco in the hearts and minds of the Indonesian people. In a distinctly difficult problem space, we worked to create a campaign focused upon recontextualising and subverting the aspirational perception of tobacco and highlighting the benefits of a smoke-free lifestyle in both the long and short term.

From our research, we distilled a series of key insights that influenced our ideation process. We categorised our insights into 3 pillars of a STEEP analysis: socio-cultural, economic and political  – as we found these to be the most dominant influencers of tobacco culture within Indonesia. We deduced that the most effective way to implement any real change would be to have a bottom-up approach. Through our ethnographic observations, and empirical insights it was evident that community enforced codes of conduct were received with more compliance than government legislation.

By drawing upon multiple streams of information we hoped to quickly gain a comprehensive understanding of the statistics associated with tobacco usage and its complex intrinsicness within Indonesian culture. In tandem with the information ascertained, we conducted interviews with a number of stakeholders to better understand the local perception of Indonesia’s tobacco industry, as well as their understanding of smoking-related disease.

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Following the collation of our research, we began the process of quickly interpreting these insights into various viable strategies in order to assess both a direction and intention for the rest of our design campaign. Following the research phase, we formulated a consensus on our target group being young Indonesians aged between 15 – 25.

Studies have found that a non-smoker identity was a major influence on intention to quit and was positively correlated with higher success rates of quitting (Meijer et al., 2015). In Indonesia, tobacco marketing has spent years building a powerful aspirational narrative around smoking, one that frames the protagonist (the smoker) as more successful, more attractive, more confident and more masculine. It follows that the antithesis of these qualities; unsuccessful, unattractive, meek, weak, etc., start to become associated with the passive act of refraining. For adolescent Indonesians that are highly affected by social and peer pressures, this highlights the importance of addressing and fostering social identities for non-smokers.

Our design solution is a campaign that outlines how to initiate these ideas to create a brand and hopefully a movement.

Pilihan Kita (our choice) is a campaign which draws on the aspirational marketing misused in Indonesia, creating a social identity for people looking to quit smoking. Stemming from second and first-hand accounts, we have created a multi-channel campaign that facilitates a safe and positive community for like-minded individuals.

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This notion of personal aspiration was continued within the creation of small comic strips. These comic strips effectively depict contextually significant aspirational stories with the aim being to change the perception of smoking as a roadblock on the path to achieve personal goals. The aspirations we chose to depict focused on the social and economic consequences of habitual smoking (which largely remain unnoticed by the Indonesians, courtesy of big tobacco). By focusing on these consequences we hope to open a new conversation about the effects of smoking in the present rather than long-term health impacts due to the relevance of these issues for young Surabaya’s.

The Instagram page is designed to facilitate a community and accountability which is proven to increase the success rate of quitting smoking. It allows people to share their stories, their motivations and location enabling them to feel like they are part of a community that is making the choice to live healthier, richer and tobacco-free.

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People who are interested in our movement can contact us via the landing page and ask for stickers and signage free of charge. This is a way for them to actually help us by making their tangible mark on public space. This will aid in ensuring the sustainability of the movement. Once we have amplified and instilled the message, it’s important to make sure that it remains present in the everyday lives of Surabaya’s, even just in a small way. Walking through the streets of Surabaya you are bombarded with imagery from Big Tobacco. We can claim back some space ourselves in our own small way. Signage can assist neighbourhoods and businesses in their efforts to keep public spaces smoke free, but this collateral also fosters solidarity and recognition amongst strangers. It fosters the notion that each one of us is not alone, and we have strength in numbers, that together we have the power to influence real and permanent social change.

Tobacco companies are not selling a product; they are selling the dream of a better future which is something much more powerful and mobilising. Our campaign recognises this. The way that we have chosen to respond is through the construction of another narrative. The difference is that this one is real, it’s based on facts and science, and it can have a positive impact on Surabayan society today.

In summary, the campaign is drawing on the success of aspirational marketing narratives that are commonly misused in tobacco advertising. Our multi-platform campaign will work to foster a new social identity, a community and as a result, an effective support system. With the implementation of this campaign, Surabaya could see the growth of a community that sees through the lies of the tobacco advertising and strives to support each other, working together to lead better lives.

REFERENCE LIST

Meijer, E., Gebhardt, W., Dijkstra, A., Willemsen, M. & Van Laar, C., 2015, ‘Quitting smoking: The importance of non-smoker identity in predicting smoking behaviour and responses to a smoking ban’, Psychology & Health, vol 30, no 12, pp.1387-1409.

World Health Organization 2018, Tobacco Control in Indonesia, viewed 8 December 2018, <http://www.who.int/tobacco/about/partners/bloomberg/idn/en/>.

 

PROJECT RAMBUTAN: Tahan Nafas

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The tobacco industry has become an ingrained foundation in Indonesian culture. With a population of over 260 million people and 336 billion cigarettes being produced in 2015 (1), an enormous percentage of the population smoke cigarettes. The World Health Organisation suggests that 65% of the male population smokes and there are over 214,000 tobacco related deaths each year (2). Problematically, it has become a huge factor in the Indonesian economy, with the industry funding sporting events, large scale advertising and owning a dominating presence within the communities. Additionally, the extremely affordable pricing and the widespread access makes devising a solution a complicated and intricate process.

We used an old Australian TV advertisement which demonstrated the symptoms of emphysema through an interactive breathing exercise as inspiration for out project. This advertisement was extremely successful as it allowed you to step into the shoes of a smoker who is experiencing the disease and physically empathise with the smoker. We found this sort of experience informative but also effective in communicating a difficult point through interaction.

Australian Emphysema Ad

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6SN4xLqYTuE

Our intervention is an informative package intended to be handed out to small communities or groups to create discussion, inform and encourage change through community members strengthening one another. The package includes six cards, candles and straws; one of the cards feature the mission statement and QR code to the website, another is fact sheet on the causes, symptoms and prevention of emphysema and four breathing exercises that replicate the shortness of breath experienced with the late stages of emphysema. The candles and straws included in the package are necessary for
experiments one and three.

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With further time consideration and funding, we believe we can improve upon this idea in several ways.  Our media outreach is currently limited to Instagram and a webpage. We intend to further spread our influence through other social media sites to reach a wider audience and hopefully, spread awareness of tobacco related diseases. Furthermore, a more extensive list of experiments could be devised with further research which could further explain symptoms of tobacco related diseases to help better resonate with youth. Additionally, we could aim to create the packages with more sustainable materials, as well as reusable household items such as bamboo and plastic bottles in future experiments to reduce costs in terms of shipping, material sourcing and also provide a second use for the products, rather than simply discarding them.

Being made aware of the minute advertisement there is for anti-smoking in Surabaya, our intervention aims to bring further awareness of the damaging health effects of smoking.  Through our initiative we hope to bring people to a closer understanding, through emphasising with the negative experiences caused by smoking. Our kits are just one step forward for our incentive. With support from community members and organisations we envision that Tahan Nafas will inspire and move people to make a change.

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PROJECT: Group Durian: Untangling the wicked problem of tobacco in Indonesia

Indonesia is an incredibly interesting space to be in with tobacco influencing many, many faucets of Indonesia’s complex economy, social nuances and cultural mentalities. There is no single solution to tackle such a large and complex issue however there are many aspects of life, here in Indonesia, that one might argue could be improved without the presence of tobacco.

Key insights are rarely found in books – but instead hidden in the conversations with locals, the backends of streets and deep within the art and spirit of the city. The insights we found most valuable are as follows:

  1. Masculinity and Tradition: Smoking in Indonesia is almost exclusively for males, as they make up 62% of the smoking population whilst only 1-3% of women are smokers (Rosemary, 2018). Our interviews with students at ITS highlighted the way in which tobacco is engrained in Javanese tradition, which allows for its normalisation and stigmas surrounding those who choose not to smoke. The young individuals found that males who did not smoke were seen as less masculine or incapable of socialising, with teenage boys stating that “If I don’t smoke, I’m not a real man.” (Aditama, 2002)

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  1. The importance and strength of communities: The Kampung,  Warna Warni, is a slum located on the riverbank. Working with a local university and a paint company they repainted the village with colour (Indo Indians 2017). The way in which colour is used has transformed the way people behave and interact in the space, changing social attitudes towards the slum area and empower the spirit of creativity in Indonesia and revealing the nations deeper values of diversity and unity (Putri 2018).

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  1. The lack of community for non-smokers: Smoking is socially accepted by most Indonesians and with many public spaces facilitating social interaction around smoking culture. In contrast, non-smokers seem to not get the same privilege as smokers, as there are rarely smoke-free areas for non smokers in public spaces.

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From this, our campaign stemmed. In a singular sentence, we want to change the role tobacco plays within Indonesia’s narrative and normalise non-smoking. We aim to achieve this by giving smokers tools to quit but even deeper than this we want to create a place for non-smokers in Indonesia. This means more non-smoking spaces, it means giving non-smokers the respect and acknowledgement that they deserve when it comes to smoking around them and it means creating a community for those who choose not to use tobacco. 

Our campaign is broken down into four main aspects:

#30DayChallenge

#WristBands

#LungSymbol

#SocialMediaMovement

First of we start with #30DayChallenge movement. Projected to start on the 31st of May 2019 inline with World Tobacco Day. In essence, this is designed to be something that piggy backs off the hype from a large anti-tobacco event such as World Tobacco Day and provides a reason or time for people to begin quitting. The 30 Day challenge can also be followed on our social media movement, Suara Tanpa Rokok, which will give daily inspiration and encouragement for all those trying to quit for the month. 

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This is followed up by the wristbands movement which is the tangible symbol of this campaign. The wristbands play a couple of important roles in all of this especially when it comes to creating communities. We see three main advantages:

  • People that are trying to quit that might be feeling isolated have the ability to walk down the street and still feel part of a community by seeing others walking around also wearing the bands. 
  • It also informs smokers how to act and be respectful around those trying to quit or those that don’t want to be associated with smoke. By seeing people wearing the band we would hope people begin to learn not to offer cigarettes, or not begin smoking around these people. 
  • Finally amongst the youth, through our interview process with students we found merchandise to often attract a lot of curiosity. By sparking curiosity and sharing the wristbands through social media we also believe this will further perpetuate our campaign. 

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Following on this notion of perpetuating our movement through social media we have created a hand symbol to allow people to show the are part of a bigger movement through their varying social media platforms  (Tsotra et al., 2004). The hands represent lungs and also the connection between individuals. Its a visible gesture which will increase engagement, awareness online and shows solidarity in the community we are creating.

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The social media movement will likely be the main platform promoting this campaign. Social media promotes communities and people, shares stories, links people up, gives people a voice, allows people to feel part of something bigger and also acts as a collection of tools, resources and information to encourage, inspire and educate. 

48371920_599468713818228_6272527615270060032_n.jpgTo start creating community notions from the get go, this campaign is actually targeted at groups of people. The idea being that groups such as educational institutions, workplaces or entire geographical communities could sign up for a ‘package’, which would contain all the necessary merchandise, advertising and messages. Local businesses and vendors would also be given an opportunity to sign up from a different angle and contribute products that meet a criteria as well creating small business opportunities. All products are collated through vital strategies and then distributed to the communities and groups. Which then markets itself through social media and word of mouth.

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A typical flow of this campaign might run as follows;

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We believe that having a campaign stemming from strong primary research and reaffirmed through secondary sources that really targets communities has the chance to create real change in Indonesia’s narrative and creating accepted places for the non-smoking community. 

 

REFERENCES

Aditama, T. Y. 2002, “Smoking Problem in Indonesia”, Medical Journal of Indonesia, vol.11, no. 1, pp. 56-65.

Indo Indians 2017, Kampung Warna Warni Jodipan, a Colorful Village in Malang, viewed on 13 December, <https://www.indoindians.com/kampung-warna-warni-jodipan-a-colorful-village-in-malang/>.

Putri, E. 2018, Jodipan: Indonesia’s Amazing Rainbow Village, Culture Trip, viewed on 13 December, <https://theculturetrip.com/asia/indonesia/articles/jodipan-indonesias-amazing-rainbow-village/>.

Rosemary, R. 2018, Forbidden Smoke, Inside Indonesia, viewed on 13 December, <https://www.insideindonesia.org/forbidden-smoke>.

Tsotra, D., Janson, M. and Cecez-Kecmanovic, D. (2004). Marketing on the Internet: A Semiotic Analysis. In: Americas Conference on Information Systems. [online] New York: Association for Information Systems, pp.4211-4220. Available at: https://aisel.aisnet.org/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=2102&context=amcis2004 [Accessed 11 Dec. 2018].

Group Pisang–PROJECT

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PreImpressions

Through our prep research in Sydney we could see some of the problems. We could see how a developing country could struggle to make a dent in a socially instituted problem. We could see how the industry within thenation caused issues and that our job would not be easy. But it was all theoretical. We didn’t really know anything about the city. We didn’t know how the food tasted, or that we’d be celebrities, or that we’d become mates with people from an utterly different cultural context. More importantly, we didn’t understand how we would help, we just presumed we’d be important, because our help and design skills were the purpose of the trip, right? But of course all the theory in the world would fail to illustrate the reality of Banjarmasin to us, and we felt thus as soon as we arrived.Screen Shot 2018-01-19 at 8.50.23 PM

 

Initial Mapping

As we recorded our observations we quickly realised we were trying to draw conclusions from what we’d seen; the reasons behind design and behaviour. Despite our efforts, our cultural ignorance and limited language isolated us from a genuine understanding of the things we were seeing. We imagined ourselves as bubbles of another culture floating in the much larger cultural bubble of Banjarmasin. This idea formed the foundation of our map; the misshapen bubble.

But realising our deductions were worth nought, we zoomed out to consider the larger structure of our observations; how did the architecture and the food and the work ethic link? We noticed a lack of urgency in behaviour and a fluidity of environment. The city is inconstant, and the people seem unconcerned. The cultural bubble is fluid. The reasons for this and the goodness or badness of it are beside the point; we don’t have the cultural comprehension to decipher it, we only have the authority to experience it.Screen Shot 2018-01-19 at 8.09.20 PM

Design Audit

Nonetheless we took quantitative data from our walk, giving us a better sense of the problem. We noticed that the market is predominantly male, with young people smoking more often socially and older men smoking whilst working. This was consolidated in one of our interviews, where the subject shared that smoking is considered masculine; it’s for the ‘gentlemen’. Street vendors and super markets seemed to be primary points of sale, with the most advertising in the city centre dedicated to L.A. Lights. Cigarettes are only purchasable by adults, but it is legal to smoke at any age, with children as young as 4 and 5 engaging in the activity.

Life in Banjarmasin

In addition to this research, we slowly gained cultural literacy through interaction with locals on the street and in shops and with food and in cars, but this was largely superfluous. More significantly, we learned by the friends we made–we were no longer scrabbling at the top of the culture, accepting what leftovers we could; we were invited to be a part of the city with them. This provided the comprehension necessary to deduce, from the little we knew, enough to develop relevant designs for the stakeholders. And even that is generous to say.Screen Shot 2018-01-19 at 8.09.31 PM

Concept vision

Rather than perpetuating the traditional fear campaign, we wanted to celebrate the vision of a tobacco-free Banjarmasin; a festival isn’t for playing on guilt or anxiety. So our inspiration came from fostering this positivity; healthy lungs for yourself, a safer environment for your family, a good example for your children.

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Brainstorm

After establishing our vision, we had a mind dump session to brainstorm as many ideas for each pitch as possible. Some of the highlights included floating hashtags, Batik-styled imagery, and anti-smoking narrative, a 3D/layered frame, a cloth frame and lungs ‘as wings’.

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Concept development

After consultation with Jess and Ali, we settled on a floral mobile frame, and a lung mural to develop as our final designs. We then invested in these to refine and improve them both in line with our vision and according to the advice from the tutors.Screen Shot 2018-01-19 at 8.10.07 PM

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Inspiration

After taking the Sasirangan workshop we were inspired to adapt our concept development to incorporate the style into our illustrations, to offer more recognisable motifs through our final design.

In choosing colour, we collated our photos of the city to create a palette reflective of the city. We colour-swatched from the images and chose a colourful pastel theme, as shown below.

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Collaborative drawing

In order to develop the floral theme, the four of us sat down together and drew free form interpretations of floral patterns. We took inspiration from one another as we did so and gathered the most successful elements to adapt as refined illustrations.

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Refined visual elements

We did this in Illustrator, tidying edges and refining the forms to reflect the desired style, adding colour according to our palette. Our illustrations were designed to ensure relevance to both a mobile and static frame.Screen Shot 2018-01-19 at 8.10.40 PM

Final Mobile Frame Design

So to lean into the empowerment theme we had established, we used our floral imagery to encourage that positive association with the anti-smoking campaign. We borrowed from local floral and Sasirangan tradition for inspiration in our illustrations, and used pastel colouring to compliment the theme. We balanced the dimensions to maintain ease of use, for holding and carrying, whilst retaining it’s recognition as an Instagram reminiscent frame.

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Final Static Frame Design

With our vision in mind, we modelled the lungs off wing murals around the world. Festival-goers could pose in between the healthy, life-filled lungs as though they were wings, becoming themselves a part of the art and of the message.

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Hiccups

But the process was not smooth! The first mistake we made was in creating a to-scale photoshop(raster) document for the wall, making it a 12m^2 document. The laptop we were using couldn’t handle the size, capping the RAM and preventing us from saving. As a result, we were unable to offer a print version of our design.

On top of this, we took for granted our own role in the production process, and projected onto the VS team our experience of the design industry in Australia. This caused misunderstandings in the executables we needed to undertake, what we needed to follow up and what required further communications. As a result, we had a brief panic after realising we had potentially two large projects to construct and paint ourselves, one more than we’d understood to be in the brief, and only a couple of days to complete them. Fortunately, this stress was alleviated after realising that this was just an extension of our errors in communication.

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Collaboration

Collaboration was woven throughout the whole process. After receiving our briefs, before beginning to undertake them, we met as a whole group to manage the thematic design of our individual responsibilities in order to ensure cohesion throughout the festival. Before completing our own brief, we assisted the hat group with preparation for and execution of their event. We communicated with them regarding materials and used their leftovers to avoid excess expenditure.

Though as valuable as the in-team collaboration has been, far more significant was the work of VS, in seeing our designs through their production, and working with the media and the local government to make all of it possible.Screen Shot 2018-01-19 at 8.11.08 PM

 

Passion

Of course, through this whole process we were keen to make what impact we could, but over the last few days that feeling has solidified into something more valuable. Now far from a costless philosophy, a city with which we’ve connected, people whom we care about, a movement to lengthen the lives of people we meet every day here, and many more across the nation. In our interviews we heard about worry for parents to the discomfort felt when a friend lights up. From pride in their own health to the tragedy of 5-year old’s smoking. The problem has become real, and our keenness has become a passion. Despite our ignorance we’re proud to be involved.Screen Shot 2018-01-19 at 8.11.24 PM

Group Rambutan – Light Signage Project

To combat the growing tobacco use in Banjarmasin, we worked in partnership with Vital Strategies to create light signage that would ultimately be used to raise awareness within the public and across social media channels via the following hashtags #AyoKeBanjarmasin, #KadaHandakRokok, #SuaraTanpaRokok.

Understanding Banjarmasin and its use of Tobacco

Known as the ‘city of a thousand rivers’, Banjarmasin is the capital of South Kalimantan that has a growing problem of tobacco use amongst youth. To grasp the city’s hustle and bustle and understand how tobacco is used, we conducted primary research by walking the streets of the city and reported our observations through the following map, which presents the ‘life cycle of a cigarette pack’.

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Observation Map (Group Rambutan 2018)

This map illustrates, through the use of symbols, where cigarettes are purchased, where and how they are advertised, where they are used and then disposed of. The small kiosks which sold the cigarettes displayed poster advertisements or large tarps which were produced and distributed by the cigarette companies. However, they were not only used for the purpose of advertising with their vibrant commercialised designs, the tarps had adopted a multi-purpose use and were also being used for shade. This was a key observation which we could potentially explore in the future.

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Tobacco Advertisements in Banjarmasin (7 Jan 2018)

The use of tobacco in Banjarmasin was popular along the river which seemed to be the perfect setting for locals to relax and smoke. The majority of the smokers seemed to be men leading us to question why there was a lack of women smokers. This prompted secondary research which revealed that this was due to mainly religious and cultural purposes but could also be for health reasons (Barraclough 1999).

Following this, it became evident that most of the cigarette packets were being disposed of in or by the river. The irony of this was they were polluting the river, one of Banjarmasin’s most iconic features. Overall, our walk allowed us to immerse ourselves in the contexts of the city we were designing for and ultimately resulted in a greater understanding of how we could create a successful design.

Ideation

Combining our prior research about smoking in Indonesia with our mapping observations, we began to consider how we as designers might respond to the issue of smoking in Banjarmasin both today and in the future. We were initially inspired by IDEO’s Diva Centres project in Zambia to inform young women about contraception and sexual health (IDEO 2017). We wanted to explore how we might be able to create an educational kit for youth in Banjarmasin about the health risks associated with smoking to prevent them from becoming future smokers.

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(IDEO.org n.d.)

Subsequently, we began undertaking further research regarding smoking culture in Indonesia, the nature of smoking advertisements as well as how an educational kit might actually be achievable in Banjarmasin. However, we were soon presented with our signage assignment and became aware that an educational kit might be too big an endeavour especially in such a limited time period and with limited resources.

Design Research

After receiving our brief, we begun undertaking visual research both via online resources such as Pinterest to explore both material and conceptual possibilities as well as investigating typography across the streets of Banjarmasin. We were inspired by the wide range of possibilities that we might be able to achieve with the style by utilizing layers of material and combination of colours.

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Similarly, we undertook a site visit to the watchtower to take some photos of the space where our signage would be displayed as well as to determine the size of the hashtags for the riverside (which had not been decided yet). Whilst we were able to get a good sense of the space, we were unable to ascend the watchtower on that day and neglected to view it from the other side of the river, which did cause us some issues later down the track as we tried to ensure the legibility of our signage from a distance.

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Whilst we enjoyed generating a wide variety of different options for our signage, following a meeting with stakeholders we were made aware of the strict limitations that we had in the materiality and layout of our signage. This meant that we had to reconsider our approach to the design to ensure that we fulfilled all the criteria.

The Design Process

Drawing inspiration from our research, we imagined various outcomes in which the signage could be executed in. Combining methods of hand sketching as well as re-working these with additional techniques on Illustrator and Photoshop, we wanted to test out what concepts were feasible to set up digitally. However, we failed to consider the time frame in which this were to be completed as well as the funding of this project. Once it was realised that the signage were to be hand-cut by the vendor, styles where the text was oblique, had shadowing or separated into multiple lines were ruled out to be economically and practically impossible. We also had to revise the typeface choice for the signage placed on the Menara Pandang to consider the marquee lights, which were to be added in afterwards. Issues relating to the weight of the material used and how it would hold up against the railings, as well as its legibility from a distance were also later recognised.

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#AyoKeBanjarmasin Design (Group Rambutan 2018)

After re-establishing restrictions and re-working our designs, the style above was noted as our most successful design as it complied to the criteria given. We then experimented with a variety of colour combinations to further test the visibility of letters. Although our initial colour choice was considered as the strongest idea, upon presenting these to the stakeholders it was suggested that the green outline should be black instead, as there was a greater contrast between the yellow and black which allowed the signs to be more visible in the dark. These changes were then made with the exception of the #AyoKeBanjarmasin sign, as it was argued that the city’s colours should be kept with relevance to the city hashtag.

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#AyoKeBanjarmasin Design (Group Rambutan 2018)

The decision of a geometric sans-serif font for the signage placed on the Menara Pandang was made to ensure the functionality in accordance with the marquee lights as well as its legibility from a tall height. On the other hand, the hashtags along the river railing were more stylised in order to appeal to the targeted youth of Banjarmasin. Rather than a sans-serif which created separation between the letters, the script font created movement and a sense of flow, alluding to the motion of water and thus, suited the city’s acclaimed title of Banjarmasin as ‘The City Of A Thousand Rivers’.

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#AyoKeBanjarmasin Design (Group Rambutan 2018)

Signage in Context

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#KadaHandakRokok #AyoKeBanjarmasin at Menara Pendang Banjarmasin (18 January 2018)

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#KadaHandakRokok #AyoKeBanjarmasin at Menara Pendang Banjarmasin (19 January 2018)

Reflection

Overall, designing for Vital Strategies and the city of Banjarmasin was an immense learning experience for Group Rambutan. Through fast-failing and quick iterations, we learnt how to work within a high-pressured environment to meet the demands of a project with a short turnaround time. Having the opportunity to design for a real life client taught us how to liaise with professionals who do not have the design experience to visualise the ideas we were generating. We were able to combat this through placing the designs in its context by creating mock-ups. Our biggest learning curve was understanding how to work within the restrictions provided by the client. As students, we are often given the creative freedom to let our imaginations run wild, however, working in partnership with Vital Strategies gave us a taste of the industry and the intrinsic rewards that come with designing for a great cause. Although our duties as designers have come to a close for this project, we hope that what we have produced will play an integral role in combating the rise of tobacco use in Banjarmasin and beyond.

References

Barraclough, S. 1999, ‘Women and tobacco in Indonesia’, Tobacco Control, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 327-332.

IDEO.org 2017, Diva Centres, IDEO.org, viewed 8 January 2018, <https://www.ideo.org/project/diva-centres&gt;

 

Group Durian – Billboard Project ‘The Hidden Voices of Banjarmasin’

Designing the billboard in partnership with Vital Strategies and the community of Banjarmasin was an exercise of iterating and responding to feedback quickly. This went a long way in completing the final design to our satisfaction, professionally and on time. Our brief was to ‘consider local motifs, styles and language’ as well as communicate a ‘global message’. So, we wanted to promote the positivity of not smoking by mirroring Banjarmasin’s lively social media culture but to also give a voice to youths who choose to not smoke, portraying them as the real heroes.

Concept Development:

The design audit was extremely valuable in gathering observations of attitudes around smoking, cigarette consumption and sales. For example, we learned that cigarette advertising is heavily glamourised but is also banned on the main streets of Banjarmasin and can only be found in small residential areas as shown on our map below.

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Cigarette advertising is heavily glamourised in Banjarmasin and can only be found in smaller residential areas, not the main streets. (Group Durian. 2018.)
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Map of observations in Banjarmasin from 8th of January 2018. (Group Durian. 2018.)

The concept of a WhatsApp screen was based on our observations of interacting with the Indonesian youth, who are very connected with each other through messaging and Instagram. There was one point where one of our new friends asked for a WhatsApp number, but sadly none of us actually used WhatsApp. Given that the rise of youth smoking was a large focus of Vital Strategies’ work, we chose to communicate through a familiar, relatable format that would project an oppositional stance against peer pressure and the popularity of smoking in Banjarmasin. In the end, this seemed to work well as when we presented the design, Vital Strategies commented that the concept is easily transferrable across different languages and cultures.

The Design Process:

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Our process started on paper, roughly sketching out how the design would work before we worried about perfecting it on the computer. (Group Durian. 2018.)

A primary research-based approach seemed to serve our group well throughout the whole project as we based the final outcome on interviews with Banjarmasin students and residents, shown in the images below. This constant back-and-forth process of creating mock-ups and receiving feedback from the Banjarmasin youth was very effective in breaking down our assumptions and reinforcing the fact that we were designing for their city. Furthermore, this direct line of communication allowed us to pay close attention to detail so we could refine the wording and learn about cultural differences in Indonesia. For example, we discovered that android is actually more popular over here, so making that change would increase relatability. Similarly, 24 hour time is used more frequently than 12 hour time. This development is shown in our iterations below.

Throughout the design process, we were always confident in our concept early on but the actual design went through many changes as we received feedback from Vital Strategies and accommodated the uncertain billboard dimensions and logos. We had to quickly adapt when Vital Strategies suddenly told us there needed to be multiple logos as we were not sure where to integrate them smoothly. But as a group, this taught us about learning how to successfully adapt to the situation and deliver what the client wants even if we were not sure how it would initially work. Creating a billboard also taught us a lot about designing to a larger scale. As oppose to designing at the actual size like we did initially, we soon discovered that we could design at a smaller scale by using vectors so that it did not pixelate when it was scaled up. Finding vector files was especially difficult for the emojis because they are not our own design.

Reflection:

In the end, this ongoing collaborative process was worthwhile to perfect the outcome and hopefully influence some change among the youth here. This opportunity from Vital Strategies to design a billboard, and contribute on this level in an event of this scale has been exciting, daunting and rewarding. As both designers and global citizens this process has challenged us but as a result we have taken valuable lessons from not only the experience but the people and city of Banjarmasin. It has given us so much more confidence heading into the early stages of our design careers. We would like to say ‘Terima kasih!’ to Vital Strategies for giving us this unique opportunity and we will never forget our first real world clients!

Group Nanas – PROJECT

Our brief was to create 6 banners to be displayed on boats in a 3×3 formation as they drove down the river. They were to be visually striking with a thought-provoking anti-smoking message.

Inspiration and influences

On our initial exploration, we were surprised by the vibrancy of the architecture and public spaces. Locations such as the rainbow bridge, the post office and primary school exhibited striking yellows, blues, greens and pastels. Following the walk, it became paramount that we showcase these colours to portray the city appropriately. Our tour of the floating markets unearthed the ways in which the river underpinned the livelihood of residents. Families washed clothes, bathed, traded and played in the muddy water. This was the first time we truly understood that Banjarmasin was the City of a Thousand Rivers.

Mood Board

The meetings with Vital Strategies, the Mayor and Health Minister attributed the smoking problem to the context of Banjarmasin’s youth and highlighted their pride and commitment to health. The video workshop allowed our group members to build friendships with Banjarmasin high-school and university students, which slowly revealed deep insights into youth attitudes towards smoking and their interactions.

Process

We began our idea generation with an image of a fish across four boats, which progressed from healthy to ill from cigarette consumption. This metaphor played on the idea that cigarettes endanger Banjarmasin’s wildlife as well as its people. Our second idea was to have a photograph of schoolchildren displaying the “tanpa rokok” fist action we had performed at the mayor’s office. We hoped the image of innocent youths would generate sympathy and encourage proactive behaviour. Thirdly, we brainstormed a river inspired by Sasirangan patterns with an anti-smoking message interwoven in the design. This was celebrated as the one with the most potential in our first meeting, so we continued to develop it to be aesthetic and logical.

Feedback and iterations

In the meeting with other groups, we came to the conclusion that we wanted the spirit of the event to be positive and uplifting, so that we could inspire people to join together and make a difference. Vital Strategies emphasised that the banners should be brightly coloured and visible from the riverbank. This provided a slight challenge as when observed from this angle, only a sliver was able to be seen. We also experimented with large type across all of the boats, but didn’t want to result in one boat with the word “smoking” on it which would undermine the impact of the campaign. We settled on the idea of a tiled puzzle pattern which was more visually appealing than verbally affecting, and continued iterating our graphics and typography.

Decision making and outcome

We designed our Banjarmasin banner to meet four key challenges; puzzle, visibility, longevity and effectiveness of the message.

The river, an important and recognisable symbol of the city, is used to divide the chunks of colour and construct the puzzle to flow from one klotok to another.

While the detail of the banners will elude spectators on the riverbank, the vibrant colours chosen will hopefully catch their attention and encourage investigation, photography and social media activity.

Banjarmasin Tanpa Rokok is stamped boldly onto each boat, which allows them to travel separately in the future without one reading “Rokok”. The stamp design alludes to the commitment that the government and people have put into reducing the smoking rate in the city.

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We designed a watermark, using the plant on Banjarmasin’s city crest to add another intriguing layer to our banner for people sitting atop the klotok. If the banners remain on the klotok after the festival, the anti-smoking message will continue to resonate through Banjarmasin.

The Sydney banner is designed to incorporate the same design elements as Banjarmasin’s banner. The watermark was an elegant wattle flower, and the river was simplified and took the shape of Sydney’s Parramatta River. The blue reflects Sydney’s oceans and rivers, with a message to inspire other cities to follow Banjarmasin’s lead.

Reflection

While the iterative process was lengthy with multiple iterations and rounds of feedback, it allowed us to establish a clearer idea of the brief. An important point of feedback was that we should have communicated with Vital Strategies in a way they allowed them to understand our design elements and share our vision for the banner. Given our vague brief, we made a recipe when we had been given a soup. We were grateful that we could take part in this enriching design process and produce something that is visually appealing, purposeful and enduring.

Banners final mockup

Group Manggis- Tanggui Project

Designing in partnership with Vital Strategies and the community of Banjarmasin was a experience in cross-cultural, interdisciplinary collaboration that required observation and negotiation both with the local community and global stakeholders.

The Not for Profit organisation Vital Strategies, work with social and environmental issues in local settings to reflect on major global issues. The collaborative campaign that we been involved on revolves around the growing problem of tobacco consumption in Indonesia, in particular amongst the youth of Banjarmasin. Our first hand observations combining primary and secondary research allowed us to gain a sense of how the cultural history and economic state of tobacco itself has influenced the popularity of tobacco consumption in Indonesia today.

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Observational Documentation of Day in Banjarmasin (Group Manggis, 2018)

 

Concept Development: A Response to our Observations

Our brief required us to ‘add an element to the junkung’. We were wary of making changes to the existing colour and vibrancy of the boats as their wooden structures are ornately and decoratively painted. Instead, we observed the potential of the acil acil hats, as distinctive features of the river boats, and a key space to be seen from afar and above. Our project aims to hero the women behind one of the most iconic aspects of Banjarmasin culture; engage with the youth; start a conversation about healthy living; all whilst spreading the word and building excitement for our Friday festival. Inspired by the generosity and enthusiasm of the local youth we’ve met in our short time here, our project is a response to the integral collaborative spirit of Banjarmasin.

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Conceptual Process and Visual Development (Group Manggis, 2018)

Primary research surrounding our task consisted predominantly of formal and informal interviews. In preparation for the event we surveyed two key stakeholders: the student workshop participants, and the acil-acil. At the Sunday morning markets, and with the help of some local friends, we found that the acil-acil were enthusiastic towards the sketched prototypes we showed them; they were excited about the hats being free, and even began choosing which design they liked most.

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Acil Acil at the Floating Markets, Banjarmasin (Suwandi Chandra Photography, 2017)

Informal interviews with our student workshop participants brought about two crucial amendments to our plan. The first of which was to extend the hours of the workshop to accommodate for more high school students, which alleviated a lot of the stress we had about not having enough participants. The second revision came about in response to a few of our friends being unsure of their design and painting abilities and participation in the workshop. To remedy this, we created a template with several template and design ideas, as well as clear, translated instructions to aid clarity and accessibility. Furthermore, to accommodate for the collaborative painting of the hats to to go as smoothly as possible, we prepped the hats with a base coat. This acted as a guide of where the writing would sit and a inner circle for the workshop participants to paint their design within.

The Design Process:

We sourced 70 hats, paint, drop sheets, brushes and snacks. The choice of paint was chosen through a process of elimination and prototyping. We tested to see how quickly it would dry, if it was water soluble and how strong the fumes were. We decided that the design would be in a centralised circle with hashtags on the outer rim.  Each individual participant would have the freedom of creating their own design within the central circle to create uniformity. On the outer rim the hashtags would be placed and the only black feature for clear visibility.

When speaking with people potentially joining the workshop, found that some weren’t as confident with painting their own design, thus we created a simple guide with examples and instructions for the people attending. We aimed to make this predominantly visual and easily transferable so to cut down difficulties encountered by a the language and encourage people passing by to get involved.

We decided on the location of the watch tower (Menara Pandang) for its central location, communal ground floor space, and open area; being easily visible to people passing along the river. This public space also allowed us to capture the public’s attention, raise awareness of our anti smoking message before the event, and also building anticipation. We also designed a social media flyer to promote the event on platforms such as Instagram and WhatsApp which are popular in Banjarmasin. The willingness of the community and the contacts we made over the past two weeks allowed the word to be spread quickly and resulted in a successful day. 

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Workshop Visual Aid (Left) Social Media Poster (Right)

 

Outcome:

As a result of the connections we made during our stay in Banjarmasin we were able to run a community based workshop. The numbers of helpers created a time efficient way of painting the hats. All 70 hats were completed by early afternoon and ready for the dress rehearsal. We aimed to make the painting workshop into an ‘event’ where a mutual cross cultural trust could be reached and established. As is emphasised in  Tom Boellstorff’s words: “The need to establish trust in order to develop a stable relationship is universal… developing trust is an issue that has to be resolved in any multicultural collaboration”.

We aimed to do this through the act of invitation and creation where the action of painting – a non verbal activity created a platform to break down barriers of cultural difference and create a channel of communication. This opening we used to promote healthy living and the anti-smoking notion. The hats were designed for longevity with the hope that they will be worn well after the event. The paint selected is waterproof to assist in giving the hats further durability. The bright and uniquely hand-painted hats are made with care and are the antithesis to the tobacco advertisement commercial and sensationalised images. The hats promote a communal, celebratory image.

Reflection:

The impact of the hat event went beyond the day as we were delighted with the turnout of our local friends, UTS student, government staff, vital strategies members, and a number of the public. This impact was made threefold as it generated interested in the festival, a visit from a local news team, and the Health Department meant greater publicity of the anti-smoking message. The public response and willingness to be involved and welcome us, made the experience an enriching cross-cultural collaboration, and a testament to the warm spirit of Banjarmasin. In this light, we endeavoured to tackle a global phenomenon through a local initiative.

The unique and iconic structure of the floating markets are integral to Banjarmasin’s historical and cultural identity and embody their proud culture. The markets thrives in creating a communal social hub this fabricated a platform heightened by their ability to move up and down the central river. The care and handcrafted additions to the traditional hats, combines the traditional past and a message of healthy living for the future. We hope it will continue to exist, spreading a positive anti-tobacco message as it moves up and down the flowing heart of Banjarmasin, well after the event.

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Tanggui Painting Workshop (17th Jan, 2018)

Watch a short video of the workshop here: https://www.instagram.com/p/BeDHkMuA4YI/?taken-by=galeribanjarmasin 

Reference List: 

Chadra, S. (2017) Suwandi Chandra Photography. Floating Markets, Banjarmasin. Available at: http://www.suwandichandra.com/project/banjarmasin-south-kalimantan [Accessed 14th January, 2018]

Anshari, D.(2017). Effectiveness of Pictorial Health Warning Labels for Indonesia’s Cigarette Packages. (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from http://scholarcommons.sc.edu/etd/4059

Nawi Ng, L. Weinehall, A. Öhman; ‘If I don’t smoke, I’m not a real man’—Indonesian teenage boys’ views about smoking, Health Education Research, Volume 22, Issue 6, 1 December 2007, Pages 794–804

Piper, S. (2008). Gang re:Publik : Indonesia-Australia creative adventures. Newtown, N.S.W.: Gang Inc, pp.80 – 82.

Bird, A &  Osland, J.S. (2005) Making Sense of Intercultural Collaboration, International Studies of Management & Organization, 35:4, 115-132

Project Kambing

In Central Java, Indonesia in early February 2017 the NGO ‘Vital Strategies’ launched the anti-smoking campaign “Tunjukkan Warna Aslimu”, (“Show Your True Colors”) in the village of Kali Code, in Yogyakarta. UTS Sydney sent a team of design students to Yogyakarta to take part in this campaign and support the NGO by creating their own miniature community projects within Kali Code. From this collaboration, our team ‘Project Kambing’ was created.

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Kali Code’s early murals, photographed from the bridge above.

Our project began with a briefing with ‘Vital Strategies,’ which also presented a chance to brainstorm project ideas. During this meeting, we established that our project outcome would need to meet 4 key criteria.

1.       Benefit the community of Kali Code
2.       Be practical and tangible
3.       Be visual and creative
4.       Feature a clear and visible anti-smoking message.

Having only visited the village briefly, many of our initial ideas were not site specific or well suited to the needs of the Kampung (village). However, we had observed that the riverside promenade area was incredibly hot and uncomfortable to stand on for extended periods. This lack of protection from the sun discouraged some of the residents from coming down to socialize and play. We settled on a plan for a shade structure which we hoped would enable the community to enjoy the space.

Manon and Karla, with help from Kali Code villagers, setting up a demo shade.

Our brainstorming technique involved Manon and I generated a variety of ideas at rapid fire and Rachel and Yilin quietly establishing which were practical. Many early ideas involved a fan like structure as well as a Becak inspired design which would be adjustable and foldable. These first sketches were accompanied by numerous ambitious side projects (herb gardens, play equipment, hopscotch) which, during our budget meeting with ‘Vital Strategies’ we were able to whittle down to something modest and achievable. We decided to focus purely on creating shade structures which would be secured to the existing riverside metal plant frames. By painting an anti-smoking message on the top of these shade structures we hoped to fulfill the wishes of both the village and the NGO.

We further refined our shade idea on site during the second visit to Kampung Kali Code and it became clear that our design needed to be user centred and site specific – any structure that wasn’t durable, flexible and suited to the environment would become obsolete, or worse inhibit the residents from using the space to carry out daily activities. Tarp, for example, is often used in Australia due to its lightweight and durable properties. But an evening of Indonesia monsoon weather can easily damage a tarp structure. Inspired by local materials, we decided bamboo was best suited for our purposes and we settled on a simple bamboo blind design which would roll over the top of the metal structure.

indo_8Creating stencils out of masking tape for each of the sun shades.

It also became apparent that compromise and adaptability were central to working within Kali Code. There were ideas the village head would immediately veto due to impracticality, materials were not always readily available and weather inhibited progress. These are all challenges that designers face on a daily basis, but which were amplified by the time constraints of our project and the foreign environment.

Team Kambing putting final touches to the anti-smoking imagery on the shades.

Durable and sustainable local materials such as bamboo were not difficult to find and soon we were prototyping our first blind and beginning the process of painting while Manon set to work collaborating with ‘Vital Strategies’ and the village head to create an anti-smoking design for the blinds. The reaction of local villagers to their ‘time bomb’ design illustrates the power of visual communication in overcoming cultural and language barriers.

In the planning, construction and set up of the structures we received assistance and collaborated with numerous people. Vital Strategies acted as valuable translators, mediators, and advisors for our project, while the villagers of Kali Code provided us with crucial feedback, technical help and direction.

indo_6Washing brushes and rollers after painting our sunshades in Kali Code with Nanda (middle) and friend.

The success of our project depended upon our ability to effectively collaborate with various different stakeholders. As undergraduates, this was the first time we had been involved in a professional project and we had to learn how to navigate the interests of the various organizations involved. Our finished product is a testament to our ability not only to work effectively within an interdisciplinary group but also to engage in lively communication, interaction and collaboration with ‘Vital Strategies’ and the tight-knit community of Kali Code to create an effective and holistic outcome.

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