POST C: Finding the truth of this non-smoking campus

Our group’s project is to study the tobacco problem in UMY. So, we did observations and interviews in the UMY campus. I picked up some details when I was making observations on the campus. For example, there are many non-smoking signs on the campus. I found many no-smoking signs on the walls and pillars. No-smoking signs were also found in the student activity area behind the main building. This is a smoke-free campus. Through research, we learned that national policies of Indonesia include: Prohibit smoking on public transit and in healthcare facilities, educational facilities, and places of worship (The Union, 2019). The Faculty of Sociology and Politics, University of Indonesia (UI) has announced that the UI has become a 100% smoke-free campus (SEATCA, 2019). The policy of banning smoking in universities can effectively educate students about the dangers of smoking and protect the health of non-smokers. It’s a very good rule. But I still have a question, will the students strictly abide by the smoking rules? So, I interviewed three kinds of people: a female student, two male students, and a tutor.

UMY CAMPUS, 2019

That girl, Ayu, is a non-smoker. She said there is no smoker in her family, so neither she nor her brother is a smoker. This reminds me of the previous research on children’s smoking. Most children and teenagers’ smokers are influenced by their families. At the same time, she says, many of her peers started smoking at age 8. This just shows the serious problem of underage smoking in Indonesia. When I asked Ayu is the smoking signs in her school are working well, she hesitated for a moment before replying: “These smoking signs are not useful.” She was resigned to the situation.

The second interviewer is two boys who often smoking. They were coming merrily down the corridor. I quickly stopped them to ask about the smoking problem on campus. They said they had just finished smoking and were ready to return to class. I was very surprised. They say many classmates will smoke on campus and few will ban smoking. “Because there is no punishment for smoking at all.” said one of the boys. Another boy said his reason for smoking was to fit in with classmates and friends. In Indonesia, smoking is a social tool among boys. If you can’t smoke, you’re not a ‘cool guy’. That reason brings us to a solution. Perhaps, through the design, we can change the way that people think about smoking, and provide these students with an alternative to smoking?

The third interviewer was a tutor. We told him gently that there was smoking on campus. However, he was not surprised at all. He said that he tried to stop it yet, but he can’t change anything. The school doesn’t have any punishment for smoking. The education bureau does not allow them to take any form of punishment. And that gives us a little bit of inspiration. Designers can ‘reward’ students for choosing not to smoke.

I think these three interviews are very important, they help us to know more about the truth of the smoking status on campus and combine these realities to design. In order to change the long-term smoking status in Indonesia and protect the health of non-smokers, society and universities must implement smoke-free policies (Kaufman, Merritt, Rimbatmaja and Cohen, 2014). So, we decided to combine this information to design a truly smoke-free campus.

Reflection:

Dhumieres, M. 2013, The number of children smoking in Indonesia is getting out of control, Public Radio International. viewed 18 December 2019, <https://www.pri.org/stories/number-children-smoking-indonesia-getting-out-control&gt;.

Kaufman, M., Merritt, A., Rimbatmaja, R. and Cohen, J. 2014, ‘Excuse me, sir. Please don’t smoke here’. A qualitative study of social enforcement of smoke-free policies in Indonesia, Health Policy and Planning, vol 30, no 8, pp.995-1002, viewed <https://doi.org/10.1093/heapol/czu103&gt;.

SEATCA 2019, University of Indonesia has become a 100% smoke-free campus – Southeast Asia Tobacco Control Alliance, Seatca.org. viewed 18 December 2019, <https://seatca.org/university-indonesia-become-100-smoke-free-campus/&gt;.

The Union 2019, Indonesia, Tobaccofreeunion.org. viewed 18 December 2019, <https://www.tobaccofreeunion.org/index.php/where-we-work/priority-countries/indonesia&gt;.

Group Serai

Welcome to 2040. We are Studio Serai and we have collaborated with the Muhammadiya Tobacco Control Centre over the past 20 years to realize a future which will improve the collective life of U.M.Y. staff and students.

Brief Context:

As one of Indonesia’s largest industries, tobacco production and consumption has become a core element of Indonesian culture, with its impact stretching from national policy to the habits and lives of individual citizens. However, in 2040 despite remaining prevalent, significant progress has been made to curb the issue. This is in no small part due to the ratification of the World Health Organisation Framework Convention on Tobacco Control in 2025 which signalled a vital cultural and legislative shift towards increased attention to the Tobacco crisis and its ill-effects. Since this point, the government has worked to redirect increased taxation from the industry and excise taxes back to anti-tobacco initiatives and grants. This has been particularly important in support of public spaces and design campaigns that previously lacked appropriate funding to address the underlying issues of the tobacco crisis in a comprehensive manner.

Philosophy/reasoning:

As a proud tobacco-free university, U.M.Y. not only provides world-class education facilities. It also caters to its students’ well-being and mental health by addressing the inevitable stresses of university life, through a supportive and modern campus.

Using a settings-based approach, in collaboration with M.T.C.C. we have improved the social context of the students, space where they engage in daily activities and where the environmental, organizational and personal factors interact to affect their health and well-being. This promotes the health of the students in a holistic manner – rather than merely reprimanding them for smoking – it reduces the anxiety and pressure felt by those trying to quit.

Elements of the design:

The desire to smoke is often caused by triggers relating to intense emotion. These emotions can include stress, anxiety, boredom and loneliness. Alternative social activities on campus have been implemented in order to avoid and resolve these feelings, eliminating common smoking triggers while simultaneously improving the mental health and well-being of the students.

As of 2032, gardening and bamboo design have become electives at U.M.Y. With the help of student volunteers, we have designed and planted vertical gardens and green landscapes across the campus. This was conceived in accordance with the notion of Forest bathing, or ‘shinrin yoku’ in Japanese, an activity where people go out into nature and use their senses to connect with the environment. ‘Earthing’ or ‘grounding’ is another technique that is used for relaxation where people take off their shoes to connect with the earth. The body becomes a sponge that soaks up negatively-charged electrons and affects health in a positive way while reducing stress.

We have chosen bamboo to restructure social spaces at the university. Drawing inspiration from the work of Singgih Kartono and Spedagi, U.M.Y. utilizes bamboo throughout its new facilities and spaces in order to rebrand the material as a modern, luxurious item while still staying true to its traditional function and practicality in Indonesian culture. Bamboo is utilized in several ways such as the ‘bambingpong’ tables, bamboo fibre shade structures, garden structures, and the gazebo-esque relaxation areas.

These objects and other physical activity zones such as exercise areas have also been implemented throughout the campus in order to curb the social triggers associated with smoking, by providing a physical and social distraction that allows the brain to release endorphins to improve the student’s mood. This method has proven effective in numerous studies which have concluded that physical activity aids abstinence, mood and self-efficacy in relation to tobacco addiction.

Map of Universitas Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta campus vision spaces in 2040.

Therapy for Students and Teachers:

Last month, 200 students at U.M.Y. underwent a mental and physical health check. This check found that 32 out of those 200 students experience a form of anxiety, which includes other mental illnesses that were not identified. Sufferers from mental illnesses are more susceptible to drug use and addiction. This includes tobacco use which temporarily relaxes individuals and provides a sense of relief. This can be addictive and become a substitute for healthier stress relief alternatives.

Now in 2040 we have these alternatives available for students at U.M.Y. decentralized throughout the campus. These include indoor and outdoor V.R. meditation rooms, healthcare services, including therapy services and quit hubs. These zones have been created to equip students with skills that will help them cope with future stress in a healthy way outside of the university environment.

The therapy and quit hub services were put in place to complement each other while being spread throughout the campus. A therapy service is a place for students to go to when they feel anxious, or even just when they feel as though they need someone to listen. Quit Hubs are more specific in their role of targeting tobacco users. When a tutor sees a student or staff member smoking, instead of taking away their student I.D. or fining the staff as what has previously been done, there are now two services that creates a coherent way in which students and staff are able to get help with their addiction, anxiety and other mental health issues.

In our timeline, we have chosen to use Australian statistics as a parallel to Indonesia’s progression, as Australia is considered to be a leader in tobacco control. In the 1970s, Australian anti-smoking movements such as BUGA UP and MOP UP began to influence public opinion. MOP UP started as an advocacy grassroots group that lobbied upstream in order to change laws around tobacco use. BUGA UP formed as a splinter group of graffiti artists that used culture jamming to redesign billboard advertisements from the tobacco industry and transformed them into new opposing messages directed towards the Industry. Some strategies that promote healthier anti-tobacco lifestyles that are proven to work on a global scale include protecting people from second-hand smoke, encouraging people to quit smoking, and helping to denormalize tobacco in the community.

In 2003 Indonesia took its first steps towards educating consumers about the adverse effects of tobacco use by printing text warnings about tobacco use on cigarette packets. At the same time, the A.C.T. became a smoke-free territory.

In 2006 U.M.Y. became the first smoke-free university in Yogyakarta while Australia started the practice of printing graphic warnings on cigarette packets which then lead on to plain packaging in 2012.

In 2020 Indonesia’s progression towards tobacco control started to ramp up with considerable increases in taxes and cigarette pricing, while in 2021 U.M.Y. began implementing therapy and quitting assistance services.

In 2025 Indonesia signed onto the F.C.T.C. framework and from there began a snowball effect of restrictions upon tobacco use and the influence that the tobacco industry has over government and G.D.P. We began to redesign U.M.Y.’s campus in order to distract students from smoking in collaboration with M.T.C.C. in accordance with the newly implemented framework.

In 2026 U.M.Y. began running traditional gardening and bamboo design electives. They also introduced a mandatory module on the dangers of tobacco as well as the Industry’s influence which has to be completed by all staff and students every year.

In 2030 tobacco advertising was banned across all media, including television and radio advertising. As Indonesia reached the fourth largest G.D.P. in the world, the rising tobacco taxes revenue was redirected towards tobacco control in an initiative known as the (Kesehatan Universitas Grant).

This year in 2040 we have finalized the design of U.M.Y.’s well-being campus and it has been implemented with the financial assistance from the Grant.

V.R. (Virtual Reality) technology is introduced into meditation spaces. Interior and exterior design has been transformed to accommodate students seeking help and the hanging gardens and greenery planted by volunteer students is flourishing.

In our collaboration with M.T.C.C. we have designed a system that supports students within a network of activities and health facilities, to help them combat stress and teach them coping strategies to improve mental health. The decentralization of these facilities and meditation spaces allow staff and students across the campus to be involved and seek help while simultaneously tackling the tobacco crisis.

Timeline:

1945 – By not joining the WHO health legislation Health rights Indonesia believes everyone has the right to have physical and spiritual prosperity, they should enjoy and enjoyable life. (World health organization 2011)

Constitution states that every person shall have the right to live in physical and spiritual prosperity, to have a home and to enjoy a tasty and healthy environment, and shall have the right to obtain medical care. By this law, the Indonesian government should increase citizen’s health standard. (Dodik Setiawan Nur Heriyanto 2014)

1970 – Indonesia’s tax system was modified based on production volume and product type, with the highest tax rates corresponding to firms with the highest production.

1979 – B.U.G.A.U.P. was a sub movement of MOP UP (Movement Opposed to the Promotion of Unhealthy Products), a group which started in Australia to expose unhealthy behaviours promoted to the Australian public (Chapman 1996). MOP UP was a subverting group that regularly held meetings. In one meeting in 1976, two members of the audience encouraged others in the group to start graffitiing over tobacco advertisements on billboards (Chapman 1996). B.U.G.A.U.P. changed Australian attitude towards smoking and was the catalyst in redefining Australian smoking culture.

1990 – Excise taxes have been levied on tobacco products in Indonesia since the early (Barber S, Adioetomo SM, Ahsan A, Setyonaluri D 2008)

1987 – The Australian Federal Government bans smoking on domestic flights. (A.B.C. news 2014)

1990 – The Australian Federal Government bans tobacco advertising in magazines, newspapers.

1993 – Nicotine patches were introduced.

1996 – Billboards, outdoor and illuminated signs advertising cigarettes are banned.

1997 – National Tobacco Commercial (NTC) anti-tobacco campaign, which reduced %3.7 in 3 years (Australian Government department of health 2019)

1999 – M.C.G. goes smoke-free.

2000 – Australian Laws are removing sponsoring exemptions.

2003 – A.C.T. bans smoking in public spaces and all enclosed spaces.

2005 – Australia bans misleading terms such as mild and light when describing certain cigarettes.

2005 – U.M.Y. opened in Muhammadiyan Yogyakarta as the first smoke-free university in Yogyakarta.

2005 – World Health Organization Framework Convention was adopted. (Dodik Setiawan Nur Heriyanto 2014)

2006 – Australia has graphic warnings on packets.

2008 – An essential reason that governments intervene in the tobacco market is to generate tax revenue in Indonesian. Tobacco taxation forms a stable source of government revenue, contributing 5.7 per cent of Indonesia’s total government revenue in 2007 (Tobaccofreekids 2008)

2009 – In Indonesia The earmarking tax concept on cigarette tax is regulated in Law No. 28/ 2009

2009 – Students smoking in schools was 20.3% (World health organization 2011)

2009 – The earmarking tax concept on cigarette tax is regulated in Law No. 28/ 2009

2009 – Approximately 70% of the cigarette tax revenue deposited to the R.K.U.D. to West Java is deposited to the district or city. Then, at least 50% of the cigarette tax revenue must be allocated to fund public health services and law enforcement as stipulated in Law No. 8/2009 on Local Taxes and Local Levies. (Jurnal Ilmu Sosial dan Ilmu Politik 2019)

2009 – Even though Indonesia has not ratified The WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC), which is raising taxes on tobacco, it has become one of the instruments used to control cigarette consumption; Indonesia utilizes tax instruments to do so, among other states; levies in the form of excise.

2010 – Smoking inside pubs and clubs banned in every Australian state. Tobacco excise increased by 25 per cent.

2010 – No smoking in enclosed space in Jakarta, health care facilities, educational facilities, children’s play areas, places of worship, public transportation, workplaces, public places, and other specified places. (Southeast Asia tobacco control alliance 2019)

2011 – Australia’s first complete state or territory ban on point-of-sale tobacco product displays.

2012 – In Australia, it is an offence for any person to publish tobacco advertising on the internet or other electronic media.

The introduction of tobacco plain packaging and updated and expanded graphic health warnings. Reduction in the duty-free allowance from 250 cigarettes or 250 grams of cigars or tobacco products to 50 cigarettes or 50 grams of cigars or tobacco products.

2012 – Proposal of the non-smoking province in Yogyakarta, no clear status if the law was enacted. (Dodik Setiawan Nur Heriyanto 2014)

2013 – Australia’s first 12.5% tobacco excise increase on 1 December.

2003 – Indonesia had text warnings on packets of cigarettes. (Tobacco Labelling 2013)

2014 – First Australian smoke-free campus, Swinburne University of Technology

2014 – Change from bi-annual indexation based on the Consumer Price Index (C.P.I.) to bi-annual indexation based on average weekly ordinary time earnings (A.W.O.T.E.).

2014 – Australia to increase 12.5% excise on cigarettes by 1 September.

2014 – Indonesia had a graphic warning that needed to cover at least 40% of the packaging (Tobacco Labelling 2013)

2014 – Approximately 5.8 trillion cigarettes were consumed (Jurnal Ilmu Sosial dan Ilmu Politik 2019)

2015 – Australia to increase 12.5% excise on cigarettes by 1 September.

2016 – The release of the Post Implementation Review of Tobacco Plain Packaging.

2016 – 12.5% excise increase will be implemented on 1 September.

2016 – Value Added Tax and Cigarette Tax. Excise and Value Added Tax are Central Taxes, while Cigarette Tax is Local Tax. With local tax collection, Indonesia has implemented the concept of earmarking tax on Cigarette Tax. According to McCleary, earmarking tax is a government policy utilizing budget for particular programs whose sources of income and expenditure are accurately determined. (Sitepu, 2016, p. 5)

2016 – Therefore, the basis for calculating cigarette tax is IDR 145,265,400,000,000 (98% of IDR 148,230,000,000,000). Thus, the estimated revenue from cigarette tax is 10% of IDR 145,265,400,000,000 (Public Relations of the Directorate General of Fiscal Balance. (Ministry of Finance, 2016)

2017 – Additional four annual 12.5% tobacco excise increases implemented on 1 September each year from 2017 to 2020 inclusive. – reduction in duty-free tobacco allowance, 25 grams of duty-free tobacco in Australia (cigarette, loose leaf etc), plus one open packet; equivalent to approximately 25 cigarettes. – harmonization of the taxation of roll-your-own tobacco and other products such as cigars, with manufactured cigarettes. (Australian Government department of health 2019)

2019 – Company’s H.M. Sampoerna and Gudang Garam raise ex-factory prices of G.G. Mild and Pro Mild by 3.3%. (Mirae Asset Sekuritas Indonesia 2019)

2020 – Indonesia’s Cigarette prices will be raised by 35% in January, and excise tax 23%. (Reuters 2019)

2020 – Indonesia government to make 172 trillion rupiah of revenue on tobacco excises. (World health organization 2018)

2020 – At U.M.Y. Health check collects data about students’ physical and mental well-being.

2021 – Indonesia implements more smoke-free places in Indonesia enclosed area and public spaces.

2022 – Indonesia implements more funds from tobacco taxes goes back into community and university.

2022 – U.M.Y. installs therapy services – quit hubs – psychology appts.

2024 – U.M.Y. redesigns and refreshes their campus to distract students from smoking.

2025 – Indonesian’s tobacco Tax to increase by 12.5%

2025 – U.M.Y. Introduces compulsory anti-smoking campaign, similar to U.T.S. Respect Now Always program. (U.T.S. 2018)

2026 – Indonesian’s tobacco Tax to increase by 12.5%

2028 – More universities are smoke-free campus.

2029 – Indonesian’s first complete village or city to ban on point-of-sale tobacco product displays.

2035 – At U.M.Y., AR is introduced into spaces for meditation. The interior design transformed to be more accommodating for students seeking help. (Brochure stands, signs to therapy places, A.R. rooms)

2040 – Indonesia’s economy may grow around 5% each year becoming the world’s fourth-largest Gross Domestic Product in the world. (The Australian 2018)

Reference list:

ABC news 2014, Key events in ant-tobacco campaign in Australia, viewed 11 December 2019, < http://www.abc.net.au/news/2014-01-10/timeline3a-smoking-report-marks-50th-anniversary/5192838&gt;

Australian Government department of health 2019, National Tobacco Campaign, viewed 11 December 2019, <https://www.health.gov.au/initiatives-and-programs/national-tobacco-campaign>

Barber S, Adioetomo SM, Ahsan A, Setyonaluri D 2008, Tobacco Economics in Indonesia, Online report, viewed online 12 December 2019, <https://www.tobaccofreekids.org/assets/global/pdfs/en/Indonesia_tobacco_taxes_report_en.pdf>

Chapman, S. 1996, Civil disobedience and tobacco control: the case of BUGA UP. Billboard Utilising Graffitists Against Unhealthy Promotions, Tobacco Control, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 179-85.

Dodik Setiawan Nur Heriyanto 2014, recent development on tobacco control policy in Indonesia: analyzing obstacles faced by Indonesia in the ratification of framework convention on tobacco control, Online Journal, page 158, viewed online 11 December 2019, <https://www.researchgate.net/publication/304892856_recent_development_on_tobacco_control_policy_in_indonesia_analyzing_obstacles_faced_by_indonesia_in_the_ratification_of_framework_convention_on_tobacco_control>

Reuters 2019, Indonesia to raise cigarette prices by more than a third at start of 2020, viewed 11 December 2019, <https://www.reuters.com/article/us-indonesia-tobacco/indonesia-to-raise-cigarette-prices-by-more-than-a-third-at-start-of-2020-iduskcn1vy17a/>

Mirae Asset Sekuritas Indonesia 2019, Tobacco A.S.P. hikes and Juul Labs’ entry into Indonesia, Online report, page 2, viewed 12 December 2019 < https://miraeasset.co.id/files/bbs/01202/11457_1.pdf?fbclid=IwAR1JkxxaNJv_ysSDVi6SrX3M_sbt5-NiMWopPU5RNew_jeINQueRPhoUsxo>

Southeast Asia tobacco control alliance 2019, Indonesia: Puffing on cigarettes in smoke-free areas still rampant: Survey finds, viewed 11 December 2019, <https://seatca.org/puffing-on-cigarettes-in-smoke-free-areas-still-rampant-survey-finds/>

The Australian 2018, Indonesia is a good friend in the making, viewed 12 December 2019, <https://www.theaustralian.com.au/news/inquirer/indonesia-is-a-good-friend-in-the-making/news-story/1451accf0de7a82108eeaa669737d736>

Tobacco Labelling 2013, Indonesia Health warnings, viewed 11 December 2019, < https://tobaccolabels.ca/countries/indonesia/>

Maisarah Putriyandri Atsani, Murwendah: The Implementation of Earmarking Tax Policy on Cigarette Tax in West Java 2019, <https://jurnal.ugm.ac.id/jsp/article/view/41485&gt;

World health organization 2011, Global adult tobacco survey Indonesia report, Online report, viewed 11 December 2019,< https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/205137/B4934.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y>

World health organization 2018, Heart disease and stroke are the commonest ways by which tobacco kills people, viewed 12 December 2019, < http://www.searo.who.int/nts&gt;

Hand crafted material’s from Yogyakarta, to help create sense of UMY Futuring spaces.